The wild horse (Equus ferus) is a species of the genus Equus, which includes as subspecies the modern domesticated horse (Equus ferus caballus) as well as the undomesticated European wild horse (Equus ferus ferus now extinct), and the endangered Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii). The European horse known as the tarpan that went extinct in the late 1800s has previously been classified as a subspecies of wild horse, but more recent studied have cast doubt on whether those horses were truly wild, or if they actually were feral horses or hybrids.
By the mid-late Pleistocene , it had an extremely large range across the Americas, Eurasia, and North Africa, across which it was abundant. There have been several fossil horse taxa from throughout this range, such as Equus lambei and Amerihippus , that were formerly considered distinct species, but genetic and morphological analysis supports them as being conspecific with E. ferus .
The tarpan was once native to Europe and western Asia before it became effectively extinct in the late 19th century. The last specimen died in 1909 whilst in captivity in an estate in Poltava Governorate , Russian Empire . The exact categorization of Equus’ remains into species or subspecies is a complex matter and the subject of ongoing work.
Equus ferus fossil from 9100 BC found near Odense , at the Zoological Museum in CopenhagenProbable European wild horse coat colors  The horse family Equidae and the genus Equus evolved in North America during the Pliocene , before the species migrated across Beringia into the Eastern Hemisphere .  Studies using ancient DNA , as well as DNA of recent individuals, suggest the presence of two equine species in Late Pleistocene North America, a caballine species, suggested to be conspecific with the wild horse,  and Haringtonhippus francisci , the “New World stilt-legged horse”; the latter has been taxonomically assigned to various names, and appears to be outside the grouping containing all extant equines.  However, in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature decided that the scientific names of the wild species have priority over the scientific names of domesticated species, therefore mandating the use of Equus ferus for the horse, independent of the position of the domesticated horse.
Przewalski’s horse is still found today, though it is an endangered species and for a time was considered extinct in the wild.  As of 2005, a cooperative venture between the Zoological Society of London and Mongolian scientists has resulted in a population of 248 animals in the wild.  Similarly, the brumby descended from horses strayed or let loose in Australia by English settlers.
In 1995, British and French explorers encountered a new population of horses in the Riwoche Valley of Tibet , unknown to the rest of the world, but apparently used by the local Khamba people. 658 , Westarp Wissenschaften, Hohenwarsleben 2008, ISBN 3-89432-913-0 ^ Goldman, Jason G. “10 Things You Didn’t Know About Przewalski’s Horses” . “A Geographic Assessment of the Global Scope for Rewilding with Wild-Living Horses (Equus ferus)” .
“Assessing the Causes Behind the Late Quaternary Extinction of Horses in South America Using Species Distribution Models” . ^ Orlando, Ludovic; Male, Dean; Alberdi, Maria Teresa; Prado, Jose Luis; Prieto, Alfredo; Cooper, Alan; Hnni, Catherine (2008-05-01). “Ancient DNA Clarifies the Evolutionary History of American Late Pleistocene Equids” .
“Wolf Predation Among Reintroduced Przewalski Horses in Hustai National Park, Mongolia”. “Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art” . ^ Barrn-Ortiz, Christina I.; Rodrigues, Antonia T.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Kooyman, Brian P.; Yang, Dongya Y.; Speller, Camilla F.; Orlando, Ludovic (17 August 2017).
^ Der Sarkissian, Clio; Vilstrup, Julia T.; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Eme, David; Weinstock, Jacobo; Alberdi, Maria Teresa; Martin, Fabiana; Lopez, Patricio M.; Prado, Jose L.; Prieto, Alfredo; Douady, Christophe J.; Stafford, Tom W.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic (March 2015). ^ a b c Orlando, Ludovic; Male, Dean; Alberdi, Maria Teresa; Prado, Jose Luis; Prieto, Alfredo; Cooper, Alan; Hnni, Catherine (9 April 2008). “Ancient DNA Clarifies the Evolutionary History of American Late Pleistocene Equids”.
^ Cai, Dawei; Zhuowei Tang; Lu Han; Camilla F. Speller; Dongya Y. Yang; Xiaolin Ma; Jian’en Cao; Hong Zhu; Hui Zhou (2009). ^ a b Vil, Carles; Jennifer A. Leonard; Anders Gtherstrm; Stefan Marklund; Kaj Sandberg; Kerstin Lidn; Robert K. Wayne; Hans Ellegren (2001). ^ Lau, Allison; Lei Peng; Hiroki Goto; Leona Chemnick; Oliver A. Ryder; Kateryna D. Makova (2009).
^ Jansen, Thomas; Forster, Peter; Levine, Marsha A.; Oelke, Hardy; Hurles, Matthew; Renfrew, Colin; Weber, Jrgen; Olek, Klaus (6 August 2002). Proceedings of the XIII International Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences, Forli, Italia, 814 September 1996. ^ Bunker, Emma C.; Watt, James C. Y.; Sun, Zhixin; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (2002).
Nomadic Art of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes: The Eugene V. Thaw and Other New York Collections . ^ Lindgren, G.; Backstrm, N.; Swinburne, J.; Hellborg, L.; Einarsson, A.; Sandberg, K.; Cothran, G.; Vil, C.; Binns, M.; Ellegren, H. (2004). ^ Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Hanghj, Kristian; Albrechtsen, Anders; Khan, Naveed; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Owens, Ivy J.; Felkel, Sabine; Bignon-Lau, Olivier; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Mittnik, Alissa; Mohaseb, Azadeh F.; Davoudi, Hossein; Alquraishi, Saleh; Alfarhan, Ahmed H.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Crubzy, Eric; Benecke, Norbert; Olsen, Sandra; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Massy, Ken; Pitulko, Vladimir; Kasparov, Aleksei; Brem, Gottfried; Hofreiter, Michael; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Lugas, Lembi; Onar, Vedat; Stockhammer, Philipp W.; Krause, Johannes; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Lepetz, Sbastien; Mashkour, Marjan; Ludwig, Arne; Wallner, Barbara; Merz, Victor; Merz, Ilja; Zaibert, Viktor; Willerslev, Eske; Librado, Pablo; Outram, Alan K.; Orlando, Ludovic (6 April 2018).
William Timothy Treal Taylor and Christina Isabelle BarrnOrtiz: Rethinking the evidence for early horse domestication at Botai. ^ “An extraordinary return from the brink of extinction for worlds last wild horse” Archived 2006-07-22 at the Wayback Machine ZSL Living Conservation, December 19, 2005.
Are there wild horses in Asia?
Asian wild horses have been found on the grasslands of central Asia for thousands of years. … Starting in 1990, offspring of these horses were released back into the wild in Mongolia and China. As of 2014, there are nearly 500 Asian wild horses once again roaming the wild grasslands of Asia.
What is the only true wild horse?
Przewalski’s horses are the only wild horses left in the world. The “wild” horses that abound in Australia and North America’s western plains and East Coast barrier islands are actually feral domestic horses that escaped from ranches and farms and returned to the wild.
What is the wildest horse in the world?
Where are horses native Asia?
Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii); also known as the Mongolian wild horse or takhi, it is native to Central Asia and the Gobi Desert.
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ThePrzewalski’s horse had reached the brink of extinction but was reintroduced successfully into the wild.The term “wild horse” is also used colloquially in reference to free-roaming herds of feral horses such as the mustang in the United States,
Evidence supportsBy the latest Pleistocene or early Holocene, American populations had disappeared as part of the Quaternary extinction event, leaving only the Old World populations. It remained widespread there and was ultimately also domesticated around 3600 B.C., but wild populations continued to decline. The last completely wild populations of the tarpan went extinct in Eastern Europe and the southern parts of Russia around the late 19th century, and the Przewalski’s horse of Central Asia became extinct in the wild in 1969. However, over the past few centuries feral horses have been introduced to all continents except Antarctica, and Przewalski’s horses have been reintroduced to their former habitats in Mongolia.
In general, wild horses are grazers that prefer to inhabit open areas, such as steppes and grasslands. They may have seasonal food preferences, as seen in the Przewalski’s subspecies.
Evolution and taxonomy
The latter two are the only never-domesticated “wild” groups that survived into historic times. However, other subspecies ofIn the Late Pleistocene epoch, there were several other subspecies of
Scientific naming of the species
At present, the domesticated and wild horses are considered a single species, with the valid scientific name for the horse species being
Przewalski’s horse occupied the eastern Eurasian Steppes, perhaps from the Urals to Mongolia, although the ancient border between tarpan and Przewalski’s distributions has not been clearly defined.In 2018, a DNA study revealed that the horses belonging to the Botai culture were Przewalski’s horses, raising the question of whether these animals were an isolated population, if extant Przewalski horses today represent feral descendants, or if the domestication attempt at Botai failed.Przewalski’s horse is still found today, though it is an endangered species and for a time was considered extinct in the wild.Przewalski’s horse has some biological differences from the domestic horse; unlike domesticated horses and the tarpan, which both have 64 chromosomes, Przewalski’s horse has 66 chromosomes due to a Robertsonian translocation.
Horses that live in an untamed state but have ancestors that have been domesticated are called “feral horses”.In 1995, British and French explorers encountered a new population of horses in the Riwoche Valley of Tibet, unknown to the rest of the world, but apparently used by the local Khamba people.