Where Are Peacocks Native To?

We use the word peacock to refer to the entire species, but the correct name for the pheasant is peafowl. Peafowl are native to India, Southeast Asia and Central Africa — not the U.S., although there is a large, growing population in Florida. All it takes is for a few birds to escape captivity, and they will quickly breed and multiply.

The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has reported receiving dozens of calls from angry residents about peacocks across the state. They knock out patio screens, their feathers clog air conditioning units, they will walk into homes if doors are left open.

Many people say they don’t mind the birds because they’re a beautiful tourist attraction that prospective homebuyers love to see in a neighborhood.

Are peacocks native to the United States?

Peacocks (or peafowl) are NOT native to North America. The two most common species of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), the Indian peafowl ( and the Green…

Where is the peacock originally from?

The two Asiatic species are the blue or Indian peafowl originally of the Indian subcontinent, and the green peafowl of Southeast Asia; the one African species is the Congo peafowl, native only to the Congo Basin. Male peafowl are known for their piercing calls and their extravagant plumage.

Where are peacocks found in the world?

Strictly, the male is a peacock, and the female is a peahen; both are peafowl. The two most-recognizable species of peafowl are the blue, or Indian, peacock (Pavo cristatus), of India and Sri Lanka, and the green, or Javanese, peacock (P. muticus), found from Myanmar (Burma) to Java.

Are Peacocks an invasive species?

Peafowl as an Invasive Species. Long prized for its exotic beauty, the blue Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus, has been exported from its native south Asia to other countries for at least 2,000 years for zoos, farming and personal enjoyment.

Nowadays we’re very used to seeing peacocks in parks and gardens in almost every continent. Their popularity is in a large part owed to their striking plumage and docile nature. In fact, peafowl were artificially introduced to most of these areas centuries to keep as decoration.

However, the probability of finding groups of wild peacocks is not restricted to that geographical area, but rather throughout the habitat in which the species can thrive. They are found in the wild in India, but also in Myanmar, China, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia and Java.

Their habitat is more tropical than that of the blue peacock; it has been widely destroyed and reduced, which is why the green peafowl is an endangered species. Peafowl eat berries, seeds, tender shoots, insects and even small reptiles, generally snakes. When other peoples started to travel to India, they became just as enamored with the beautiful birds as the local population.

When the British Raj took control of India, it was common for them to send birds back to their homeland to be displayed to the public. In the Middle Ages, they were eaten as food in Europe, a practice which still takes place today in parts of China.

Peafowl is a common name for three bird species in the genera Pavo and Afropavo within the subtribe Pavonina of the family Phasianidae, the pheasants and their allies. Male peafowl are referred to as peacocks, and female peafowl are referred to as peahens, even though peafowl of either sex are often referred to colloquially as “peacocks“.[1]

The functions of the elaborate iridescentcolouration and large “train” of peacocks have been the subject of extensive scientific debate. Charles Darwin suggested that they served to attract females, and the showy features of the males had evolved by sexual selection .

Unlike Indian peafowl, the green peahen is similar to the male, but has shorter upper tail coverts, a more coppery neck, and overall less iridescence. They vary between yellow and tawny, usually with patches of darker brown or light tan and “dirty white” ivory. [3] While initially gynandromorphism was suspected, researchers have suggested that changes in mature birds are due to a lack of estrogen from old or damaged ovaries, and that male plumage and calls are the default unless hormonally suppressed.

Pattern variations include solid-wing/black shoulder (the black and brown stripes on the wing are instead one solid colour), pied, white-eye (the ocelli in a male’s eye feathers have white spots instead of black), and silver pied (a mostly white bird with small patches of colour). Additional colour and pattern variations are first approved by the United Peafowl Association to become officially recognised as a morph among breeders. By contrast, true albino peafowl would have a complete lack of melanin , resulting in irises that look red or pink.

Optical interferenceBragg reflections , based on regular, periodic nanostructures of the barbules (fiber-like components) of the feathers, produce the peacock’s colours. Then, the male will turn and display his feathers about 45 to the right of the suns azimuth which allows the sunlight to accentuate the iridescence of his train. If the female chooses to interact with the male, he will then turn to face her and shiver his train so as to begin the mating process.

The peahen’s reproductive success and the likelihood of survival of her chicks is partly dependent on the genotype of the mate. [11][12] This hypothesis is designed to explain Takahashi’s findings that in Japan, neither reproductive success nor physical condition correlates with the train’s length, symmetry or number of eyespots. Males with more exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, such as bigger, brighter peacock trains, tend to have better genes in the peahen’s eyes.

Marion Petrie tested whether or not these displays signalled a male’s genetic quality by studying a feral population of peafowl in Whipsnade Wildlife Park in southern England. Thus, a brilliant train serves as an honest indicator for females that these highly ornamented males are good at surviving for other reasons, so are preferable mates. Mariko Takahashi found no evidence that peahens preferred peacocks with more elaborate trains (such as with more eyespots), a more symmetrical arrangement, or a greater length.

Certain morphological and behavioural traits come in to play during inter and intra-sexual selection, which include train length for territory acquisition and visual and vocal displays involved in mate choice by peahens. Some studies suggest that the intricacy of the “song” produced by displaying peacocks proved to be impressive to peafowl. Peafowl are omnivores and eat mostly plants, flower petals, seed heads, insects and other arthropods , reptiles , and amphibians .

Domesticated peafowl may also eat bread and cracked grain such as oats and corn, cheese, cooked rice and sometimes cat food. A peacock in a flask, “representing the stage in the alchemical process when the substance breaks out into many colours”, [30] from the Splendor Solis (1582). The peacock displays the divine shape of Omkara when it spreads its magnificent plumes into a full-blown circular form.

Chandragupta Maurya , the founder of the Mauryan Empire , was born an orphan and raised by a family farming peacocks. According to the Buddhist tradition, the ancestors of the Maurya kings had settled in a region where peacocks ( mora in Pali ) were abundant. Peacocks (often a symbol of pride and vanity) were believed to deliberately consume poisonous substances in order to become immune to them, as well as to make the colours of their resplendent plumage all the more vibrant seeing as so many poisonous flora and fauna are so colourful due to aposematism , this idea appears to have merit.

Peacocks are seen supporting the throne of Amitabha , the ruby red sunset coloured archetypal Buddha of Infinite Light. Melek Taus ( Arabic : ; Persian : ; Kurdish : Taws Melek), the “Peacock Angel”, is the Yazidi name for the central figure of their faith. The Yazidi consider Taws Melek an emanation of God and a benevolent angel who has redeemed himself from his fall and has become a demiurge who created the cosmos from the cosmic egg .

According to Ovid , to commemorate her faithful watchman, Hera had the hundred eyes of Argus preserved forever, in the peacock’s tail. Individual peacock feather barbules were placed, among silk and metal threads, to highlight the scales of the dragon. The peacock can also symbolise the cosmos if one interprets its tail with its many ‘eyes’ as the vault of heaven dotted by the sun, moon, and stars.

Among Ashkenazi Jews , the golden peacock is a symbol for joy and creativity, with quills from the bird’s feathers being a metaphor for a writer’s inspiration. The peacock motif was revived in the Renaissance iconography that unified Hera and Juno, and on which European painters focused. In the 1486 painting Annunciation with St. Emidius by Carlo Crivelli , a peacock is sitting on the roof above the praying Virgin Mary .

Stuff it with what you like, as truffles, mushrooms, livers of fowls, bacon, salt, spice, thyme, crumbs of bread, and a bay-leaf. ^ Adeline Loyau, Doris Gomez, Benot Moureau, Marc Thry, Nathan S. Hart, Michel Saint Jalme, Andrew T.D. ^ Loyau, Adeline; Saint Jalme, Michel; Cagniant, Ccile; Sorci, Gabriele (October 2005).

^ Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Patricelli, Gail L.; Babcock, Jason S.; Pearson, John M.; Platt, Michael L. (15 August 2013).

Peacocks of Florida Causing Problems

Residents in many parts of Florida have been complaining about the growing peacock population for years. Neighborhoods from Cape Canaveral down to Miami have been overrun. Florida’s west coast, including many towns along the Gulf of Mexico, are among the areas that are most populated with the birds. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has reported receiving dozens of calls from angry residents about peacocks across the state.

Issues Peacocks Cause

Most Florida residents with wild peacocks around their home complain about them walking around their front yards, invading their backyards and even walking on their roof. The birds are noisy, and squawk loudly — even in the middle of the night. They knock out patio screens, their feathers clog air conditioning units, they will walk into homes if doors are left open. They also scratch cars and have even attacked dogs. Their droppings are found everywhere, such as in pools, and can make children sick.

A Growing Issue, Hard to Control

Peacocks are not endangered, but they’re protected by Florida authorities, who say that Florida is the bird’s habitat. Some communities control populations by moving the birds, and others have tried a contraceptive pill. These solutions haven’t been perfect, however, because populations can multiply again so quickly.One example is Longbeach Village in Longboat Key. The town has reduced its population of 150 birds down to 12 every year since 2008, but these efforts have proven useless because the number of birds quickly grows again. A couple in Redlands, Florida reported having 130 birds around their home in 2009. They were working with a local non-profit conservation group, Vanishing Species, to relocate the birds. The couple says that when they purchased the house 18 years earlier, there were just two peacocks.

Where Do Peacocks Live?

Nowadays we’re very used to seeing peacocks in parks and gardens in almost every continent. Their popularity is in a large part owed to theirIn this AnimalWised article, we ask

The origin of wild peafowl

If you wonder why we keep mentioning peafowl in our article on where do peacocks live, we should clarify. Peafowl is the type of animal, butNow that this is clear, where do peafowl originate?There are two species of peafowl, both of them native to South Asia. TheTheThe green and blue peafowl are of the same genera, but there is another genera in the same family made of one species known as theWhen we findPeafowl eat berries, seeds, tender shoots, insects and even small reptiles, generally snakes. Taking into account their omnivorous diet, they’re a versatile and adaptable species. The dietary habits of the peacock means they are, essentially,

Peafowl in captivity

However, although we knowWhen other peoples started to travel to India, they became just as enamored with the beautiful birds as the local population. In fact, it is believed that Alexander the Great took some home with him when he conquered the Northwest of IndiaWhen the British Raj took control of India, it was common for them to send birds back to their homeland to be displayed to the public. Peacocks were also given as gifts to nobility as they conferred a major social status. It is still common for wealthy families to keep peacocks as pets if they have the suitable space to keep them. In the Middle Ages, they were

In search of a suitable habitat

PeafowlPeafowl use tree branches as resting places, which offer protection from some of their natural predators. Peacocks also need to have some water nearby, where they mainly go to drink during the mornings. Peafowl cannot live in cold climates, and their

Peafowl

The two Asiatic species are the blue or Indian peafowl originally of the Indian subcontinent, and the green peafowl of Southeast Asia; the one African species is the Congo peafowl, native only to the Congo Basin. Male peafowl are known for their piercing calls and their extravagant plumage. The latter is especially prominent in the Asiatic species, which have an eye-spotted “tail” or “train” of covert feathers, which they display as part of a courtship ritual.The functions of the elaborate iridescent colouration and large “train” of peacocks have been the subject of extensive scientific debate. Charles Darwin suggested that they served to attract females, and the showy features of the males had evolved by sexual selection. More recently, Amotz Zahavi proposed in his handicap theory that these features acted as honest signals of the males’ fitness, since less-fit males would be disadvantaged by the difficulty of surviving with such large and conspicuous structures.

Plumage[edit]

The Indian peacock has iridescent blue and green plumage, mostly metallic blue and green, but the green peacock has green and bronze body feathers. In both species, females are a little smaller than males in terms of weight and wingspan, but males are significantly longer due to the “tail”, also known as a “train”.Green peafowl differ from Indian peafowl in that the male has green and gold plumage and black wings with a sheen of blue. Unlike Indian peafowl, the green peahen is similar to the male, but has shorter upper tail coverts, a more coppery neck, and overall less iridescence.The Congo peacock male does not display his covert feathers, but uses his actual tail feathers during courtship displays. These feathers are much shorter than those of the Indian and green species, and the ocelli are much less pronounced. Females of the Indian and African species are dull grey and/or brown.Chicks of both sexes in all the species are cryptically coloured. They vary between yellow and tawny, usually with patches of darker brown or light tan and “dirty white” ivory.Mature peahens have been recorded as suddenly growing typically male peacock plumage and making male calls.

Colour and pattern variations[edit]

Hybrids between Indian peafowl and Green peafowl are calledIn addition to the wild-type “blue” colouration, several hundred variations in colour and pattern are recognised as separate morphs of the Indian Blue among peafowl breeders. Pattern variations include solid-wing/black shoulder (the black and brown stripes on the wing are instead one solid colour), pied, white-eye (the ocelli in a male’s eye feathers have white spots instead of black), and silver pied (a mostly white bird with small patches of colour). Colour variations include white, purple, Buford bronze, opal, midnight, charcoal, jade, and taupe, as well as the sex-linked colours purple, cameo, peach, and Sonja’s Violeta. Additional colour and pattern variations are first approved by the United Peafowl Association to become officially recognised as a morph among breeders. Alternately-coloured peafowl are born differently coloured than wild-type peafowl, and though each colour is recognisable at hatch, their peachick plumage does not necessarily match their adult plumage.Occasionally, peafowl appear with white plumage. Although albino peafowl do exist, this is quite rare, and almost all white peafowl are not albinos; they have a genetic condition called leucism, which causes pigment cells to fail to migrate from the neural crest during development. Leucistic peafowl can produce pigment but not deposit the pigment to their feathers, resulting in their blue-grey eye colour and the complete lack of colouration in their plumage. Pied peafowl are affected by partial leucism, where only some pigment cells fail to migrate, resulting in birds that have colour but also have patches absent of all colour; they, too, have blue-grey eyes. By contrast, true albino peafowl would have a complete lack of melanin, resulting in irises that look red or pink. Leucistic peachicks are born yellow and become fully white as they mature.

Iridescence[edit]

As with many birds, vibrant iridescent plumage colours are not primarily pigments, but structural colouration. Optical interference Bragg reflections, based on regular, periodic nanostructures of the barbules (fiber-like components) of the feathers, produce the peacock’s colours. Slight changes to the spacing of these barbules result in different colours. Brown feathers are a mixture of red and blue: one colour is created by the periodic structure and the other is created by a Fabry–Pérot interference peak from reflections from the outer and inner boundaries. Such structural colouration causes the iridescence of the peacock’s hues. Color derived from physical structure rather than pigment can vary with viewing angle.

Food courtship theory[edit]

Charles Darwin suggested inSexual selection is the ability of male and female organisms to exert selective forces on each other with regard to mating activity.

Natural selection[edit]

It has been suggested that a peacock’s train, loud call, and fearless behaviour have been formed by natural selection (with or without sexual selection too), and served as an aposematic display to intimidate predators and rivals.

Female choice[edit]

Multiple hypotheses attempt to explain the evolution of female choice. Some of these suggest direct benefits to females, such as protection, shelter, or nuptial gifts that sway the female’s choice of mate. Another hypothesis is that females choose mates with good genes. Males with more exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, such as bigger, brighter peacock trains, tend to have better genes in the peahen’s eyes.Work concerning female behaviour in many species of animals has sought to confirm Darwin’s basic idea of female preference for males with certain characteristics as a major force in the evolution of species.The peacock’s train and iridescent plumage are perhaps the best-known example of traits believed to have arisen through sexual selection, though with some controversy.Furthermore, peafowl and their sexual characteristics have been used in the discussion of the causes for sexual traits. Amotz Zahavi used the excessive tail plumes of male peafowls as evidence for his “handicap principle”.In contrast to Petrie’s findings, a seven-year Japanese study of free-ranging peafowl concluded that female peafowl do not select mates solely on the basis of their trains. Mariko Takahashi found no evidence that peahens preferred peacocks with more elaborate trains (such as with more eyespots), a more symmetrical arrangement, or a greater length.

Plumage colours as attractants[edit]

A peacock’s copulation success rate depends on the colours of his eyespots (ocelli) and the angle at which they are displayed. The angle at which the ocelli are displayed during courtship is more important in a peahen’s choice of males than train size or number of ocelli.

Redundant signal hypothesis[edit]

Although an intricate display catches a peahen’s attention, the redundant signal hypothesis also plays a crucial role in keeping this attention on the peacock’s display. The redundant signal hypothesis explains that whilst each signal that a male projects is about the same quality, the addition of multiple signals enhances the reliability of that mate. This idea also suggests that the success of multiple signalling is not only due to the repetitiveness of the signal, but also of multiple receivers of the signal. In the peacock species, males congregate a communal display during breeding season and the peahens observe. Peacocks first defend their territory through intra-sexual behaviour, defending their areas from intruders. They fight for areas within the congregation to display a strong front for the peahens. Central positions are usually taken by older, dominant males, which influences mating success. Certain morphological and behavioural traits come in to play during inter and intra-sexual selection, which include train length for territory acquisition and visual and vocal displays involved in mate choice by peahens.

Behaviour[edit]

Peafowl are forest birds that nest on the ground, but roost in trees. They are terrestrial feeders. All species of peafowl are believed to be polygamous. In common with other members of the Galliformes, the males possess metatarsal spurs or “thorns” on their legs used during intraspecific territorial fights with some other members of their kind.In courtship, vocalisation stands to be a primary way for peacocks to attract peahens. Some studies suggest that the intricacy of the “song” produced by displaying peacocks proved to be impressive to peafowl. Singing in peacocks usually occurs just before, just after, or sometimes during copulation.

Diet[edit]

Peafowl are omnivores and eat mostly plants, flower petals, seed heads, insects and other arthropods, reptiles, and amphibians. Wild peafowl look for their food scratching around in leaf litter either early in the morning or at dusk. They retreat to the shade and security of the woods for the hottest portion of the day. These birds are not picky and will eat almost anything they can fit in their beak and digest. They actively hunt insects like ants, crickets and termites; millipedes; and other arthropods and small mammals.Domesticated peafowl may also eat bread and cracked grain such as oats and corn, cheese, cooked rice and sometimes cat food. It has been noticed by keepers that peafowl enjoy protein-rich food including larvae that infest granaries, different kinds of meat and fruit, as well as vegetables including dark leafy greens, broccoli, carrots, beans, beets, and peas.

Indian peafowl[edit]

The peafowl is native to India and significant in its culture. In Hinduism, the Indian peacock is the mount of the god of war, Lord Kartikeya, and the warrior goddess Kaumari, and is also depicted around the goddess Santoshi.Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan Empire, was born an orphan and raised by a family farming peacocks. According to the Buddhist tradition, the ancestors of the Maurya kings had settled in a region where peacocks (The peacock is represented in both the Burmese and Sinhalese zodiacs. To the Sinhalese people, the peacock is the third animal of the zodiac of Sri Lanka.Peacocks (often a symbol of pride and vanity) were believed to deliberately consume poisonous substances in order to become immune to them, as well as to make the colours of their resplendent plumage all the more vibrant – seeing as so many poisonous flora and fauna are so colourful due to aposematism, this idea appears to have merit. The Buddhist deity Mahamayuri is depicted seated on a peacock. Peacocks are seen supporting the throne of Amitabha, the ruby red sunset coloured archetypal Buddha of Infinite Light.India adopted the peacock as its national bird in 1963 and it is one of the national symbols of India.

Persia and Mesopotamia[edit]

In Persia and Babylonia, the peacock is seen as a guardian of royalty and is often engraved upon royal thrones.Melek Taus (Arabic: طاووس ملك; Persian: ملک طاووس; Kurdish: Tawûsê Melek), the “Peacock Angel”, is the Yazidi name for the central figure of their faith. The Yazidi considerIn the Diwan Masbuta d-Hibil Ziwa, the Mandaean emanation Yushamin is described as a peacock.

Elsewhere[edit]

Ancient Greeks believed that the flesh of peafowl did not decay after death, so it became a symbol of immortality. In Hellenistic imagery, the Greek goddess Hera’s chariot was pulled by peacocks, birds not known to Greeks before the conquests of Alexander. Alexander’s tutor, Aristotle, refers to it as “the Persian bird”. When Alexander saw the birds in India, he was so amazed at their beauty that he threatened the severest penalties for any man who slew one.One myth states that Hera’s servant, the hundred-eyed Argus Panoptes, was instructed to guard the woman-turned-cow, Io. Hera had transformed Io into a cow after learning of Zeus’s interest in her. Zeus had the messenger of the gods, Hermes, kill Argus through eternal sleep and free Io. According to Ovid, to commemorate her faithful watchman, Hera had the hundred eyes of Argus preserved forever, in the peacock’s tail.The symbolism was adopted by early Christianity, thus many early Christian paintings and mosaics show the peacock. The peacock is still used in the Easter season, especially in the east.Among Ashkenazi Jews, the golden peacock is a symbol for joy and creativity, with quills from the bird’s feathers being a metaphor for a writer’s inspiration.The peacock motif was revived in the Renaissance iconography that unified Hera and Juno, and on which European painters focused.In 1956, John J. Graham created an abstraction of an 11-feathered peacock logo for American broadcaster NBC. This brightly hued peacock was adopted due to the increase in colour programming. NBC’s first colour broadcasts showed only a still frame of the colourful peacock. The emblem made its first on-air appearance on 22 May 1956.A group of peacocks is called an “ostentation” or a “muster”.