Hedgehogs are small mammals with cone-shaped faces, short legs and bodies that are covered with porcupine-like quills. Despite their similar appearances, porcupines and hedgehogs are not closely related.
When in danger, the hedgehog rolls into a ball so that the quills cover the entire area of their exposed body and protects the animal from predators, according to National Geographic . They can live in a wide range of habitats, including savannas, forests, deserts, scrublands and suburban gardens.
Hedgehog burrows can be up to 20 inches (50 cm) deep, according to the San Diego Zoo, and nests are made from leaves, branches and other vegetation. Hedgehogs are solitary creatures that are big sleepers and can sleep up to 18 hours per day, according to Animal Planet. In areas where there aren’t extreme climates, hedgehogs are active and have normal sleep cycles, according to National Geographic.
(Image credit: Matej Ziak , Shutterstock ) Hedgehogs only give birth once per year after a gestation of four to six weeks. Kingdom : Animalia Subkingdom : Bilateria Infrakingdom : Deuterostomia Phylum : Chordata Subphylum : Vertebrata Infraphylum : Gnathostomata Superclass : Tetrapoda Class : Mammalia Subclass : Theria Infraclass : Eutheria Order : Erinaceomorpha Family : Erinaceidae Subfamily : Erinaceinae Genera : Atelerix , Erinaceus , Hemiechinus , Mesechinus , Paraechinus Species : 16 are recognized.
Where are hedgehogs from originally?
Sources suggest that wild hedgehogs are originally from Africa, Europe, Asia, and New Zealand.
Are there wild hedgehogs in America?
There are seventeen species of hedgehog in five genera found throughout parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and in New Zealand by introduction. There are no hedgehogs native to Australia and no living species native to the Americas.
Where are hedgehogs illegal?
It’s currently illegal to own a hedgehog in California ; Georgia; Hawaii; New York City; Omaha, Nebraska; and Washington, D.C. Other states and cities may have specific restrictions or require a permit to keep one. It’s also illegal to transport hedgehogs out of Africa.
Do hedgehogs only live in the UK?
Hedgehogs live in a broad range of habitats.. Apart from very wet areas and extensive pine forests, they live in most parts of Britain. They are also often scarce in upland areas such as moorlands and mountainsides. … They thrive in the mosaic of hedges, fields and woodlands that characterise the British countryside.
A hedgehog is a spiny mammal of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae. There are seventeen species of hedgehog in five genera found throughout parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and in New Zealand by introduction. There are no hedgehogs native to Australia and no living species native to the Americas. However, the extinct genus Amphechinus was once present in North America.
The name hedgehog came into use around the year 1450, derived from the Middle English heyghoge , from heyg , hegge (“hedge”), because it frequents hedgerows, and hoge , hogge (“hog”), from its piglike snout. Hedgehogs are easily recognized by their spines , which are hollow hairs made stiff with keratin .
 Their spines are not poisonous or barbed and, unlike the quills of a porcupine , do not easily detach from their bodies. Since the effectiveness of this strategy depends on the number of spines, some desert hedgehogs that evolved to carry less weight are more likely to flee or attack, ramming an intruder with the spines; rolling into a spiny ball for those species is a last resort. Hedgehogs sleep for a large portion of the day under bushes, grasses, rocks, or most commonly in dens dug in the ground, with varying habits among the species.
Hedgehogs are fairly vocal and communicate through a combination of grunts, snuffles and/or squeals, depending on species. The purpose of this habit is unknown, but some experts believe anointing camouflages the hedgehog with the new scent of the area and provides a possible poison or source of infection to predators poked by their spines. Like opossums , mice, and moles , hedgehogs have some natural immunity against some snake venom through the protein erinacin in the animal’s muscular system, although it is available only in small amounts and a viper bite may still be fatal.
 In addition, hedgehogs are one of four known mammalian groups with mutations that protect against another snake venom, -neurotoxin . In mammals, the olfactory part of the brain is covered by neopallium , making it difficult to expose. [ clarification needed ] Tests have suggested that hedgehogs share the same electrical activity as cats.
They feed on insects , snails , frogs and toads , snakes , bird eggs , carrion , mushrooms , grassroots , berries , melons and watermelons .  Berries constitute a major part of an Afghan hedgehog ‘s diet in early spring after hibernation. Lack of predators and controlled diet contribute to a longer lifespan in captivity (810 years depending on size).
Hedgehogs are born blind, with a protective membrane covering their quills, which dries and shrinks over the next several hours. It is illegal to own a hedgehog as a pet in some US states including Hawaii, Georgia, Pennsylvania, and California,  and some Canadian municipalities, and breeding licenses are required. Attempts to eliminate hedgehogs from bird colonies on the Scottish islands of North Uist and Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides were met with international outrage.
Squamous cell spreads quickly from the bone to the organs in hedgehogs, unlike in humans. This ringworm or dermatophytosis infection is caused by Trichophyton erinacei , which forms a distinct mating group within the Arthroderma benhamiae species complex. Hedgehog suffering from balloon syndrome before deflatingHedgehogs can suffer from balloon syndrome , a rare condition in which gas is trapped under the skin as a result of injury or infection and which causes the animal to inflate.
Hedgehog amulet from Egypt, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Amenhotep III – Cleveland Museum of ArtAs with most small mammals living around humans, cars pose a great threat to hedgehogs. Most owners are considerate enough, however, to cut the tubes lengthwise to prevent the hedgehog from remaining trapped against its will. In the Middle East and especially among Bedouins , hedgehog meat is considered medicinal, and thought to cure rheumatism and arthritis .
In Morocco , inhaling the smoke of the burnt skin or bristles is a purported remedy for fever, male impotence, and urinary illnesses; the blood is sold as a cure for ringworm , cracked skin and warts and the flesh is eaten as a remedy for witchcraft.  Romani people still eat hedgehogs, boiled or roasted, and also use the blood and the fat for its supposed medicinal value. In 1981 Philip Lewis, whole landlord of the former Vaults public house in Welshpool , Wales began the manufacture of ” hedgehog-flavoured” crisps .
The classical Persians saw the hedgehog as sacred to Ahura Mazda because of its dedication to destroying agricultural pests: “the dog with the prickly back and the long, thin muzzle…from midnight to morning it kills thousands of the creatures of the Evil One”.  The Ancient Greeks valued the saying of Archilochos : “The fox knows many tricks, the hedgehog, one good one” (presumably its ability to roll up in a ball). Sir Richard Onslow (160164), parliamentarian, compared King Charles I of England to a hedgehog.
 In Part Four of Fyodor Dostoyevsky ‘s The Idiot , Aglaya gives Prince Myshkin a hedgehog that Kolya has acquired and sold to her, as a gift of reconciliation, which clears up the bad feeling between them after a quarrel.  E. Nesbit wrote a fantasy short story entitled “The Princess and the Hedge-pig” (collected in The Magic World , 1912), in which a prince is under an enchantment, and his transformation into a hedgehog allows a curious prophecy to come true. In the 1927 British detective novel, The Ellerby Case by John Rhode , in the chapter entitled “The Green Hedgehog,” Doctor Lancelot Priestly, the investigator who solves the case, is nearly murdered by a hedgehog dyed green whose spines have been impregnated with a virulent poison.
[ citation needed ] Philip Larkin , the well-known twentieth century poet, wrote one of his last poems on the death of a hedgehog, ” The Mower “. Such as Ivo Caprino ‘s The Pinchcliffe Grand Prix (1975), the most widely seen Norwegian film of all time , as well as John M. Jacobsen ‘s Gurin with the Foxtail (1998). The novelist Jasper Fforde conceived of a Hedge-pigs Society, intended to “advance hedgehogs in all branches of literature….[which] got references into Kipling , Carroll , Aesop and four mentions in Shakespeare “.
“Meet the Hedgehog: What feeds on lizards, chews venomous toad skins and coats its spiky body with frothy saliva?” “The antihemorrhagic factor, erinacin, from the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), a metalloprotease inhibitor of large molecular size possessing ficolin/opsonin P35 lectin domains”. “Why the honey badger don’t care: Convergent evolution of venom-targeted nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mammals that survive venomous snake bites”.
^ Takahashi, Yoko; Ayako Sano; Kayoko Takizawa; Kazutaka Fukushima; Makoto Miyaji; Kazuko Nishimura (2003).
They live across Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Central Asia. Hedgehogs were introduced to New Zealand from England, and now they are abundant throughout the country, but considered a threat to native wildlife.
One of the most famous hedgehogs is of course Mrs Tiggy-Winkle, the industrious washerwoman from Beatrix Potters stories. Experimental chef John Farley offered advice on how to prepare hedgehogs with almonds in his 1783 cookbook, The London Art of Cookery.
Milk also makes hedgehogs ill as they are lactose intolerant, so it is important to only ever leave them water to drink. The only venomous snake in Britain is the adder, which is incapable of biting a hedgehog through its spines.
Animals Wildlife 10 Fun Facts About Hedgehogs By Melissa Breyer Melissa Breyer Twitter Editorial Director Hunter College F.I.T., State University of New York Cornell University Melissa Breyer is Treehuggers editorial director. She is a sustainability expert and author whose work has been published by the New York Times and National Geographic, among others. Learn about our editorial process Updated July 31, 2021 Supakrit Tirayasupasin / Getty Images Share Twitter Pinterest Email Animals Wildlife Pets Animal Rights Endangered Species The hedgehog is a spiny nocturnal forager found across the globe. There are 17 species of hedgehogs, and these loners can make a home just about anywhere deserts, parks, or local gardens. When they are out searching for food, they rely heavily on their sharp quills and ability to stop, drop, and roll into a ball for protection against predators. From their endearing pig-like snout to their natural ability to fight off snake venom, discover the most fascinating facts about hedgehogs. 1. Hedgehogs Were Named for Their Unique Foraging Methods Its no surprise that hedgehogs are exceptional foragers its how they were named. They root through hedges seeking their prey mostly insects, as well as worms, centipedes, bird eggs, snails, mice, frogs, and snakes while emitting snorts, squeals, and grunts with their pig-like snouts. Their long snouts also provide a strong sense of smell, and their curved claws make them exceptional diggers, both of which are necessary for these nocturnal hunters. 2. A Group Is Called an Array Dieter Hopf / Getty Images Dont expect to find many large gatherings of hedgehogs. Notorious loners, hedgehogs only meet up for mating. When the male hedgehog, or boar, finds a female hedgehog, or sow, he circles her repeatedly in a mating ritual. After mating, the boar leaves the sow immediately, and she gives birth to four to six hoglets about a month later. The sow doesnt share her home for long; the young hoglets are weaned and live on their own at about four to six weeks. 3. They Live in a Variety of Habitats The 17 species of hedgehogs live across the globe. They are found in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and are an introduced species in New Zealand. Hedgehogs have adaptations that allow them to live in forests, deserts, savannahs, parks, and home gardens. Depending on where they live, they may nest under small bushes or rocks or dig burrows in the soil. 4. Their Earliest Relatives Lived About 125 Million Years Ago In 2015, a team of scientists working in Spain discovered fossilized remains of a mammal related to the hedgehog. This finding was especially important as it was the first time scientists observed spine-like structures in Mesozoic mammals. The animals size, as well the existence of keratin structures, led scientists to compare the 125-million-year-old fossil to both spiny mice and hedgehogs. 5. They Have a Built-in Suit of Armor Hedgehogs can thank their spines for their signature look. They are actually one-inch modified hairs made of keratin that cover the critters back and sides. There are between 5,000 to 7,000 spines, or quills, on an average adult hedgehog. They are neither poisonous nor barbed, and unlike the quills of a porcupine, the hedgehog’s spines stay firmly attached to the animal. Most hedgehogs have quills from birth. Some are underneath a layer of fluid-filled skin and others are covered by a membrane. The hoglets first spines are much softer and are replaced with stronger spines as they grow. 6. They Roll Into a Ball to Protect Themselves petrzurek / Getty Images When hedgehogs feel threatened or alarmed, they curl themselves into spiny little balls to protect themselves and deter predators. In this rolled shape, hedgehogs are much less appealing to badgers, foxes, and other predators. When they curl up, all of their spines point out, which also protects their face, chest, legs, and stomach because those areas are covered in fur, not quills. 7. They Don’t All Hibernate Since hedgehogs live in a variety of climates across the globe, some species need to hibernate to get through cold winters. Hedgehogs in desert regions may remain awake all year or experience a bout of torpor lasting 24 hours or less. In the coldest regions, hedgehogs may hibernate for as long as six months; they eat prior to hibernation and store fat to last several weeks. During this time, hedgehogs awaken, forage for food, and return to their slumber. Hedgehogs are able to adjust their schedule and in warmer climates or when winters are especially mild, they may not hibernate at all. 8. They Practice Self-Anointing Hedgehogs take part in a unique type of self-anointing behavior. The mammals will lick and chew toxins and other irritating substances, creating a frothy mixture that they rub onto their skin and spines. Scientists are not quite sure why hedgehogs do this, but hypotheses range from making themselves poisonous to predators to a behavior associated with mating or communication. 9. They Are Naturally Immune to Snake Venom Ipinchuk / Getty Images Like opossums, European hedgehogs have proteins in their blood that neutralize and provide some natural immunity against snake venom. Other animals like mongooses, honey badgers, and pigs have also developed an evolutionary convergent adaptation to snake venom resistance. The value of resistance to snake venom in hedgehogs is significant, as they are able to prey on and even withstand bites from venomous snakes. The immunity is not 100 percent, however, and if stricken by a more virulent snake, the hedgehog may still succumb to the bite. 10. They Can Pass Infections to Humans Known as zoonoses, hedgehogs can transmit viruses or parasites to humans. Cases involve direct contact and most often occur in owners of pet hedgehogs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns that human contact with hedgehogs can result in salmonella infections as well as Trichophyton erinacei, also known as ringworm, even in healthy looking animals. Hedgehogs also carry and can transmit ectoparasites like ticks, fleas, and mites. View Article Sources Roberts, Colin. “Erinaceus europaeus (Western European Hedgehog).” Animal Diversity Web. Martin, Thomas et al. “A Cretaceous Eutriconodont and Integument Evolution in Early Mammals.” Nature, vol. 526, no. 7573, 2015, pp. 380-384., doi:10.1038/nature14905. Everson, K. “Spines and Quills.” Animal Diversity Web. Published 2015. McAllan, B. M., and F. Geiser. “Torpor During Reproduction in Mammals and Birds: Dealing with an Energetic Conundrum.” Integrative and Comparative Biology, vol. 54, no. 3, 2014, pp. 516-532., doi:10.1093/icb/icu093 Messer, Emily J. E., and Mark T. Bowler. “Anointing.” Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior, 2017, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_863-1 Holding, Matthew L., et al. “Venom Resistance as a Model for Understanding the Molecular Basis of Complex Coevolutionary Adaptations.” Integrative and Comparative Biology, vol. 56, no. 5, 2016, pp. 1032-1043., doi:10.1093/icb/icw082 Drabeck, Danielle H., et al. “Why The Honey Badger Don’t Care: Convergent Evolution of Venom-Targeted Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Mammals that Survive Venomous Snake Bites.” Toxicon, vol. 99, 2015, pp. 68-72., doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.03.007 Vanmechelen, Bert, et al. “Common Occurrence of Belerina Virus, A Novel Paramyxovirus Found in Belgian Hedgehogs.” Sci Rep., vol. 10, no. 19341, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76419-1 “Ringworm in Hedgehogs.” Garden Wildlife Health. “Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Hedgehogs.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019.
Most hedgehogs can fit in an adult’s hand. They range in size from 4 to 12 inches (10 to 30 centimeters), according to the San Diego Zoo. They typically weigh from 5 to 56 ounces (155 to 1,584 grams), depending on the species.
Hedgehogs can be found in Europe, Asia, Africa and New Zealand, according to National Geographic. They can live in a wide range of habitats, including savannas, forests, deserts, scrublands and suburban gardens.Hedgehog homes are usually burrows and nests they build themselves. Hedgehog burrows can be up to 20 inches (50 cm) deep, according to the San Diego Zoo, and nests are made from leaves, branches and other vegetation. Sometimes, hedgehogs take over burrows that other animals have left behind or nestle between rocks.
Hedgehogs are solitary creatures that are big sleepers and can sleep up to 18 hours per day, according to Animal Planet. They are also nocturnal, which means they sleep during the day. This can make them poor pet choices for someone that wants and active pet during daytime hours.At night, hedgehogs search for food. Hedgehogs have poor eyesight and rely on hearing and smell to help them find food. Hedgehogs have up to 44 teeth, according to the San Diego Zoo.They use sleep to protect themselves from extreme climates in addition to just getting rest. Hedgehogs hibernate in cold climates, and they sleep through times of heat and drought in deserts. This process of sleeping during heat and drought is called aestivation. In areas where there aren’t extreme climates, hedgehogs are active and have normal sleep cycles, according to National Geographic.
Hedgehogs are named for the way they eat, according to National Geographic. They root underneath hedges and other vegetation, making snorting noises like a hog. During this activity, they find meals of fruit, fungi, centipedes, insects, snails, worms, mice, frogs, eggs, birds, frogs, reptiles, roots and snakes. According to the AWF, hedgehogs can eat one-third of their body weights in just one night.
Hedgehogs only give birth once per year after a gestation of four to six weeks. Their litters usually consist of four to seven young at one time. Each baby hedgehog, called a hoglet or piglet, weighs less that 1 ounce (3 to 25 g) at birth.Typically, the mother protects her piglets from predators as even the father may try to eat the young. Sometimes, if the nest is disturbed, the mother may even become the predator and will eat her young.After four to seven weeks, piglets are on their own. At nine to 11 months they are fully mature and will live three to eight years in the wild or up to 10 years in captivity, according to the San Diego Zoo.
The taxonomy of hedgehogs, according to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, is:
AHedgehogs share distant ancestry with shrews (family Soricidae), with gymnures possibly being the intermediate link, and they have changed little over the last fifteen million years.
Hedgehogs are easily recognized by their spines, which are hollow hairs made stiff with keratin.All species of hedgehogs can roll into a tight ball in self-defense, causing all of the spines to point outwards.Hedgehogs are primarily nocturnal, though some species can also be active during the day. Hedgehogs sleep for a large portion of the day under bushes, grasses, rocks, or most commonly in dens dug in the ground, with varying habits among the species. All wild hedgehogs can hibernate, though not all do, depending on temperature, species, and abundance of food.Hedgehogs are fairly vocal and communicate through a combination of grunts, snuffles and/or squeals, depending on species.Hedgehogs occasionally perform a ritual called anointing.Like opossums, mice, and moles, hedgehogs have some natural immunity against some snake venom through the protein erinacin in the animal’s muscular system, although it is available only in small amounts and a viper bite may still be fatal.
The olfactory regions have not been thoroughly studied in the hedgehog. In mammals, the olfactory part of the brain is covered by neopallium, making it difficult to expose. This difficulty is not insurmountable, as it varies from one species to another. Tests have suggested that hedgehogs share the same electrical activity as cats.
Although traditionally classified in the now abandoned order Insectivora, hedgehogs are omnivorous. They feed on insects, snails, frogs and toads, snakes, bird eggs, carrion, mushrooms, grass roots, berries, melons and watermelons.
During hibernation, the body temperature of a hedgehog can decrease to about 2 °C (36 °F). When the animal awakes from hibernation, the body temperature rises from 2–5 °C (36–41 °F) back to its normal 30–35 °C (86–95 °F) body temperature.
Reproduction and lifespan
Depending on the species, the gestation period is 35–58 days. The average litter is 3–4 newborns for larger species and 5–6 for smaller ones. As with many animals, it is not unusual for an adult male hedgehog to kill newborn males.Hedgehogs have a relatively long lifespan for their size. Larger species of hedgehogs live 4–7 years in the wild (some have been recorded up to 16 years), and smaller species live 2–4 years (4–7 in captivity), compared to a mouse at 2 years and a large rat at 3–5 years. Lack of predators and controlled diet contribute to a longer lifespan in captivity (8–10 years depending on size).Hedgehogs are born blind, with a protective membrane covering their quills, which dries and shrinks over the next several hours.
Hedgehog bones have been found in the pellets of the European eagle owl.In Britain, the main predator is the European badger. European hedgehog populations in the United Kingdom are lower in areas where badgers are numerous,
The most common pet species of hedgehog are hybrids of the white-bellied hedgehog or four-toed hedgehog (It is illegal to own a hedgehog as a pet in some US states including Hawaii, Georgia, Pennsylvania, and California,
In areas where hedgehogs have been introduced, such as New Zealand and the islands of Scotland, the hedgehog has become a pest. In New Zealand it causes immense damage to native species including insects, snails, lizards and ground-nesting birds, particularly shore birds.Eradication can be troublesome. Attempts to eliminate hedgehogs from bird colonies on the Scottish islands of North Uist and Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides were met with international outrage. Eradication began in 2003 with 690 hedgehogs being killed. Animal welfare groups attempted rescues to save the hedgehogs. By 2007, legal injunctions against the killing of hedgehogs were put in place. In 2008, the elimination process was changed from killing the hedgehogs to trapping them and releasing them on the mainland.
Hedgehogs suffer many diseases common to humans.Cancer is very common in hedgehogs. The most common is squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell spreads quickly from the bone to the organs in hedgehogs, unlike in humans. Surgery to remove the tumors is rare because it would result in removing too much bone structure.Fatty liver disease is believed by many to be caused by bad diet. Hedgehogs will eagerly eat foods that are high in fat and sugar. Having a metabolism adapted for low-fat, protein-rich insects, this leads to common problems of obesity. Fatty liver disease is one sign, heart disease is another.Hedgehogs are also known to be highly susceptible to pneumonia. Similarly to how pneumonia affects humans, the symptoms for pneumonia in hedgehogs include difficulty breathing and presence of nasal discharge.Hedgehogs uncommonly transmit a characteristic fungal skin infection to human handlers as well as other hedgehogs. This ringworm or dermatophytosis infection is caused byHedgehogs can suffer from balloon syndrome, a rare condition in which gas is trapped under the skin as a result of injury or infection and which causes the animal to inflate.
As with most small mammals living around humans, cars pose a great threat to hedgehogs. Many are run over as they attempt to cross roadways. In Ireland, hedgehogs are one of the most common mammalian road fatalities. Between April 2008 and November 2010 on two stretches of road measuring 227 km and 32.5 km there were 133 recorded hedgehog fatalities. Of another 135 hedgehog carcasses collected from throughout Ireland, there were significantly more males than females collected, with peaks in male deaths occurring in May and June. Female deaths outnumbered males only in August, with further peaks in female deaths observed in June and July. It is suggested that these peaks are related to the breeding season (adults) and dispersal/exploration following independence.Domesticated hedgehogs can get their heads stuck in tubes (commonly, toilet paper tubes) and walk around with them on their heads. Owners often refer to this as “tubing” and promote the behavior by supplying lean tubes. Most owners are considerate enough, however, to cut the tubes lengthwise to prevent the hedgehog from remaining trapped against its will. Curiously, some hedgehogs still knowingly get themselves stuck for hours.
Culinary and medicinal use
Hedgehogs are a food source in many cultures. Hedgehogs were eaten in Ancient Egypt and some recipes of the Late Middle Ages call for hedgehog meat.In 1981 Philip Lewis, whole landlord of the former Vaults public house in Welshpool, Wales began the manufacture of “hedgehog-flavoured” crisps. Lewis’s marketing had to change, however from hedgehog ‘flavoured’ to hedgehog ‘flavour’, due to advertising standards, as the crisps did not actually contain any hedgehog.
History of hedgehogs in literature
One of the most famous hedgehogs is of course Mrs Tiggy-Winkle, the industrious washerwoman from Beatrix Potter’s stories. The character is inspired by Beatrix Potter’s own pet hedgehog.Beatrix Potter’s character Mrs Tiggy-WinkleLewis Carroll also included hedgehogs in his 1865 novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. The Red Queen uses hedgehogs as balls in her croquet match.
As a delicacy
Some travelling communities have traditional recipes for roasting hedgehogs.They rolled the hogs in clay and baked them in a fire. When the clay was cracked off after cooking, the spines and hair would also be removed.Experimental chef John Farley offered advice on how to prepare hedgehogs with almonds in his 1783 cookbook, The London Art of Cookery.