Yvette Running Horse Collins recent dissertation may have rewritten every natural history book on the shelf. A Lakota/Nakota/Cheyenne scholar, Collin worked within the University of Alaska Fairbanks Indigenous Studies program to synthesize fossil evidence, historical documents and oral history to present a compelling new story of the horse in the Americas.
At this point, the narrative shifted to say that horses originated in the Americas, but were later completely extinguished due to the last Ice Age period (roughly 13,000 to 11,000 years ago). She also drew from recorded observations in the diaries and maps created by explorers such as Sir Francis Drake, Sebastian Cabot, and other early Spanish conquistadors.
The dissertation posits that the discrepancy between the Spanish reintroduction theory and the story reflected by current evidence has to do with a cultural bias that is still present within Western academia. Collin theorizes that because horses were a symbol of status and civilization in Spain during that time, and because conquerors needed to illustrate the Native people as savage and uncivilized to justify their conquest to the Queen of Spain, the truth about the relationship between Native peoples and the horse was purposefully distorted. For this reason, she posits in through an intercultural translation lens that the history of the relationship between the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas and their horses was covered up and rewritten.
Collin says, according to her ancestors ways, she refuses to sell her horses but gifts them to people who are interested in them for ceremonial or healing purposes and are willing to care for them according to her cultural traditions. Collin seeks to inspire more research to illuminate the truth behind what the government has labeled as feral so that wild horses can be protected by the Indigenous Species Act.
Are horses indigenous to the United States?
Horses are native to North America. Forty-five million-year-old fossils of Eohippus, the modern horse’s ancestor, evolved in North America, survived in Europe and Asia and returned with the Spanish explorers. The early horses went extinct in North America but made a come back in the 15th century.
When did Native Americans get horses?
The Indians got their first horses from the Spanish. When the Spanish explorers Coronado and DeSoto came into America they brought horses with them. This was in the year of 1540. Some horses got away and went wild.
Did horses exist in America before Columbus?
The original theory accepted by the Western World was that there were no horses in the Americas prior to Columbus ‘ arrival in 1492. The Western World concluded that all horses of Native American peoples were, therefore, descendants of horses brought from overseas.
Did Vikings bring horses to America?
Vikings did use horses. At one point some Vikings landed in England(?), stole a bunch of local horses, and rode inland for rich raiding in towns that had never been attacked. So, yes, it would have been really cool for Vikings to show up with horses in North America. Viking Cavalry vs American Indians — what an image!
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Forty-five million-year-old fossils of Eohippus, the modern horses ancestor, evolved in North America, survived in Europe and Asia and returned with the Spanish explorers. Their teeth indicate the Eohippus was a roaming animal that sustained itself on foliage, like leaves and other plant foods.
He had examined the collection of ancient fossils gathered from the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains. It made its way on the scene with small developmental strides over Orohippu, with more grinding teeth, a more substantial body, and changes to its feet. It is unclear precisely what caused the extinction of horses in North America, but there are three viable theories: human overkill, climate change, and infectious disease.
Humans crossed the Bering Sea and arrived in North America close to the time horses became extinct. Archeologists in the Western United States have unearthed butchering tools that date back over 7,000 years ago. Skeptics dismiss these findings because there is no fossil evidence of horses from this time, so did humans kill off all our equine friends?
The Bering Strait land bridge allowed horses and other mammals to travel from Alaskas northern slope when food supplies dwindled and return during times of abundance. When the Ice Age ended, sea levels rose to cut off animals natural food sources. The flooding of the Bering Strait land bridge resulted in the extinction of many large mammals in North America.
Some horses escaped or were abandoned and populated large areas of the southwestern United States. Horses flourished on the new continent, and they were used for transportation, ranch work, hauling freight, and farming. They theorize the Native people subdued the wild Spanish horses in the mid 16th century.
In the southwestern United States, a wealthy Spaniard established a settlement, which included livestock and horses. Horses were probably first ridden about 5,500 years ago on the plains of northern Kazakhstan, according to a 2009 study conducted by the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom. Through the use of new scientific techniques, the team of researchers confirmed bit damage caused by horses being harnessed or bridled.
ANSWER: False. North America was in fact the cradle of the horses evolution, and horses existed here up until 8,000 to 12,000 years ago, when climate change and/or the arrival of humans and hunting caused the extinction of horses on the continent.
As a result, the conquistadors were able to vanquish large numbers of Indians with a relative handful of men. Next to God, reported the expedition of Francisco Coronado to what is now New Mexico, we owe our victory to the horses.
Of course, the Indians eventually overcame their fear and acquired horses of their own, gathering strays or stealing from the settlers bands and becoming expert horsemen.
The horse family Equidae and the genus Equus evolved in North America. Fossil evidence dating to the Eocene Studies using ancient DNA, as well as DNA of recent individuals, shows there once were two closely related horse species in North America, the wild horse (Equus ferus), and Equus francisci or “New World stilt-legged horse” (taxonomically assigned to various names). Horses existed in Canada as recently as 12,000 years ago, and a 1992 study produced evidence that horses existed in the Americas until 8,00010,000 years ago.
One hypothesis held that horse populations north of Mexico originated in the mid-1500s with the expeditions of Narvez, de Soto or Coronado, but it has been refuted. Most other tribes did not practice extensive amounts of selective breeding, though they sought out desirable horses through acquisition and quickly weeded out those with undesirable traits.
However, due to the barriers presented by mountain ranges and deserts, the California population did not significantly influence horse numbers elsewhere at the time. By 1787, these animals had multiplied to the point that a roundup gathered nearly 8,000 free-roaming mustangs and cattle. West-central Texas, between the Rio Grande River and Palo Duro Canyon, was said to have the most concentrated population of feral horses in the Americas. Throughout the west, horses escaped human control and formed feral herds, and by the late 1700s, the largest numbers were found in what today are the states of Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Abuses linked to certain capture methods, including hunting from airplanes and poisoning water holes, led to the first federal free-roaming horse protection law in 1959.
Horses native to North America
Horses have played a significant role in the history of North America and throughout the world. Currently, in North America, there are close to 19.5 million horses, representing almost a third of the world’s horse population. But are horses native to North America?
Eohippus “dawn horse” lived in North America
The evolution of horses in North America begins 60 million years ago withEohippus differed dramatically from the horses of today. It was a small animal, standing only 13 inches and had an arched back similar to some deer. Eohippus also had functioning toes, four on their front feet and three on their hind feet.These small animals didn’t have grinding teeth found in modern horses, but short crowned teeth. Their teeth indicate the Eohippus was a roaming animal that sustained itself on foliage, like leaves and other plant foods. The characteristics of the ancient animal suggest it was likely a timid forest dweller.The name Eohippus was first applied by Thomas Henry Huxley while visiting the United States in 1876. He had examined the collection of ancient fossils gathered from the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains.Mr. Huxley believed these fossils bolstered the theory of evolution by tracing horses native to North America to modern horses. Thus the name Eohippus, the “dawn horse.” The Eohippus evolved into Orohippus.The noticeable differences between Orohippus and Eohippus were the absence of the vestigial toes that were present in Eohippus, and Orohippus had an extra grinding tooth with more crest, allowing it to feed on tougher plants.
Epihippus showed signs of hoof development
Thirty-eight million years ago, Epihippus stepped out from the forest and into the meadows. It made its way on the scene with small developmental strides over Orohippu, with more grinding teeth, a more substantial body, and changes to its feet. Epihippus middle toe was larger, the first sign of its development into a hoof.
Why did horses disappear from North America?
Horses native to North America vanished. Scientists confirmed horses originated in North America by examining the fossil evidence. And we have proof that they went extinct, but why did the horses native to the region disappear from North America?
Humans crossed the Bering Sea and arrived in North America close to the time horses became extinct. For years it has been believed that horses and humans did not cohabitate the continent.
Archeologists in the Western United States have unearthed butchering tools that date back over 7,000 years ago. The DNA from horses native to North America was found on these ancient blades.Skeptics dismiss these findings because there is no fossil evidence of horses from this time, so did humans kill off all our equine friends? That’s a question we can’t answer yet.
Climate change and the resulting change of vegetation are the most likely cause of the extinction of the horses native to North America. Equus survived by crossing the Bering land bridge that connected Alaska to Siberia.During the ice age, rapid climate changes took place, resulting in population swings, according to research by the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.The Bering Strait land bridge allowed horses and other mammals to travel from Alaska’s northern slope when food supplies dwindled and return during times of abundance.When the Ice Age ended, sea levels rose to cut off animals’ natural food sources. The flooding of the Bering Strait land bridge resulted in the extinction of many large mammals in North America.
The rapid spread of infectious diseases is a theory floated as a cause of the extinction of horses native to North America, however, there seems to be little scientific support for this theory.
How did horses return to North America?
People in North America love horses, and we know they’re native to our continent. However, at some point, the animals were extinct and later made a huge comeback, so who do we thank for their return?
Cortez and other explorers brought mostly Iberian horses. Some horses escaped or were abandoned and populated large areas of the southwestern United States. These bands of horses became known as mustangs.European settlers brought horses of varying breeds to North America. Some were large for farming, and others as stock to mate with smaller horses. In the early 1900s, the horse population in the United States had grown to 20 million.Horses flourished on the new continent, and they were used for transportation, ranch work, hauling freight, and farming. Horse racing became a popular sport, and thoroughbred breeding farms were established. Horses were back and stronger than ever.
When did Native Americans get horses?
When I think of Native Americans of the old west, I picture them hunting and traveling on horseback. But since we know the Spanish introduced horses to North America, when did Native Americans get horses?
It is doubtful that Native Americans could learn to catch, break, and train a wild horse without training, especially in such a short time. It is more likely they either traded for horses or were taught to train horses, which would take time.In the southwestern United States, a wealthy Spaniard established a settlement, which included livestock and horses. The vaqueros rode horses to watch over the vast property. Indians from local tribes were used to help keep the horses and other livestock.Over some time, the Native American helpers recognized the value of horsemanship and learned how to handle horses. The help would abscond a horse and bring it to their tribe. These horses were used to teach other tribe members horsemanship skills.Native Americans learned the skills needed to train their horses and began capturing wild horses and trading with the Spanish for horses.
When did humans start riding horses?
I’m always amazed by how well horses and humans coordinate to perform amazing feats. While recently at a showjumping competition I wondered how long people have been riding horses.
Archeologists uncovered evidence that indicates horses were selectively bred, used for milk, and possibly ridden. Through the use of new scientific techniques, the team of researchers confirmed bit damage caused by horses being harnessed or bridled.And testing of pottery remanents found traces of horse milk. These revelations indicate horses were domesticated 1,000 years earlier than prior estimates.
What country did horses originate from?
Horses originated from the United States and other countries in North America more than 50 million years ago. However, they went extinct on the continent about 10,000 years ago.