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Problem Details What is a substance that can be formed through the ionic bonding of an anion and a cation?

What is a substance that can be formed through the ionic bonding?

Salts. substances formed by an ionic bond. Ionic compound.

What can form an ionic bond with an anion?

Such a bond forms when the valence (outermost) electrons of one atom are transferred permanently to another atom. … The atom that loses the electrons becomes a positively charged ion (cation), while the one that gains them becomes a negatively charged ion (anion).

When a bond is formed between an anion and a cation?

Ionic bonds are formed between cations and anions. A cation is formed when a metal ion loses a valence electron while an anion is formed when a non-metal gains a valence electron. They both achieve a more stable electronic configuration through this exchange.

What is an anion and a cation how do they form?

Ions are charged substances that have formed through the gain or loss of electrons. Cations form from the loss of electrons and have a positive charge while anions form through the gain of electrons and have a negative charge.

– A cation is formed when a metal ion loses a valence electron while an anion is formed when a non-metal gains a valence electron. They both achieve a more stable electronic configuration through this exchange.

Ionic solids form crystalline lattices, or repeating patterns of atoms, with high melting points, and are typically soluble in water. Key Terms electrolyte : An ionic compound which dissolves in H2O, making the resulting solution capable of conducting electricity. This exchange results in a more stable, noble gas electronic configuration for both atoms involved. An ionic bond is based on attractive electrostatic forces between two ions of opposite charge. At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds form lattices, are crystalline solids under normal conditions, and have high melting points. Two main factors that contribute to the magnitude of the lattice energy are the charge and radius of the bonded ions. It is defined as the heat of formation for ions of opposite charge in the gas phase to combine into an ionic solid. Lattice energy cannot be determined experimentally due to the difficulty in isolating gaseous ions. The energy value can be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it can be calculated theoretically with an electrostatic examination of the crystal structure. Ionic formulas must satisfy the noble gas configurations for the constituent ions and the product compound must be electrically neutral. Key Terms noble gas : Any of the elements of group 18 of the periodic table, which are monatomic and, with very limited exceptions, inert, or non-reactive. electrically neutral : A net charge of zero, which occurs when an atom or molecule/compound has no surplus or deficit of electrons. An ionic bond is formed through the transfer of one or more valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal, which produces a cation and an anion that are bound together by an attractive electrostatic force. On a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), form a crystalline lattice and are solids at normal temperatures and pressures. The ionic composition is then defined by the requirement that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall. For example, to combine magnesium (Mg) and bromine (Br) to get an ionic compound, we first note the electronic configurations of these atoms (valence level in indicated in italics): In the written form, while the cation name is generally the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is changed to – ide, as in the case of sodium chloride. Key Points Ionic bonding is presented as the complete transfer of valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal. In reality, electron density remains shared between the constituent atoms, meaning all bonds have some covalent character. The ionic or covalent nature of a bond is determined by the relative electronegativities of the atoms involved. covalent character : The partial sharing of electrons between atoms that have an ionic bond. There are multiple kinds of attractive forces, including covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are generally presented as the complete loss or gain of one or more valence electrons from a metal to a nonmetal, resulting in cations and anions that are held together by attractive electrostatic forces. However, because fluorine is more highly electronegative than carbon, it attracts that shared electron pair closer to itself and thus creates an electric dipole. The lowercase greek delta written above the atoms is used to indicate the presence of partial charges. All bonding interactions have some covalent character because the electron density remains shared between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent character of a bond is determined by the difference in electronegativity between the constituent atoms. Such bonds are thought of as consisting of partially charged positive and negative poles.

Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the transfer of an electron from a metal atom to a non-metal atom.

Learning Objectives

Identify the key features of ionic bonds

Key Takeaways

Key Terms

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond in which valence electrons are lost from one atom and gained by another. This exchange results in a more stable, noble gas electronic configuration for both atoms involved. An ionic bond is based on attractive electrostatic forces between two ions of opposite charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic bonds involve a cation and an anion. The bond is formed when an atom, typically a metal, loses an electron or electrons, and becomes a positive ion, or cation. Another atom, typically a non-metal, is able to acquire the electron(s) to become a negative ion, or anion.One example of an ionic bond is the formation of sodium fluoride, NaF, from a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loses its single valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has just enough space to accept it. The ions produced are oppositely charged and are attracted to one another due to electrostatic forces.At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds form lattices, are crystalline solids under normal conditions, and have high melting points. Most of these solids are soluble in HIonic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types result in the stable electronic states associated with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons are shared between the two atoms. All ionic bonds have some covalent character, but the larger the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms, the greater the ionic character of the interaction.

Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure of the bond strength in an ionic compound.

Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the factors that affect it

Key Takeaways

Key Terms

Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Lattice energy is an estimate of the bond strength in ionic compounds. It is defined as the heat of formation for ions of opposite charge in the gas phase to combine into an ionic solid. As an example, the lattice energy of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the energy released when gaseous Na[latex]\text{Na}^+ (g) + \text{Cl}^- (g) \rightarrow \text{NaCl} (s) \;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; \Delta H=-787.3\text{ kJ/mol}[/latex]The negative sign of the energy is indicative of an exothermic reaction.Alternatively, lattice energy can be thought of as the energy required to separate a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous form of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).Alternatively, lattice energy can be thought of as the energy required to separate a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous form of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).Lattice energy cannot be determined experimentally due to the difficulty in isolating gaseous ions. The energy value can be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it can be calculated theoretically with an electrostatic examination of the crystal structure.

Learning Objectives

Apply knowledge of ionic bonding to predict the formula of ionic compounds

Key Takeaways

Key Terms

Video Summary

An ionic bond is formed through the transfer of one or more valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal, which produces a cation and an anion that are bound together by an attractive electrostatic force. On a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), form a crystalline lattice and are solids at normal temperatures and pressures.The charge on the cations and anions is determined by the number of electrons required to achieve stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic composition is then defined by the requirement that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.For example, to combine magnesium (Mg) and bromine (Br) to get an ionic compound, we first note the electronic configurations of these atoms (valence level in indicated in italics):Mg: 1sBr: 1sIn order to achieve noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom needs to lose its two valence electrons, while the bromine atom, which has 7 valence electrons, requires one additional electron to fill its outer shell. Therefore, for the resulting compound to be neutral,Note that the cation always precedes the anion both in written form and in formulas. In the written form, while the cation name is generally the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is changed to –More examples:

Ionic vs Covalent Bond Character

Ionic bonds can have some covalent character.

Learning Objectives

Discuss the idea that, in nature, bonds exhibit characteristics of both ionic and covalent bonds

Key Takeaways

Key Terms