Types of Puffer Fish?

Tetraodontidae is a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes. The family includes many familiar species variously called pufferfish, puffers, balloonfish, blowfish, blowies, bubblefish, globefish, swellfish, toadfish, toadies, honey toads, sugar toads, and sea squab.[1] They are morphologically similar to the closely related porcupinefish, which have large external spines (unlike the thinner, hidden spines of the Tetraodontidae, which are only visible when the fish have puffed up). The scientific name refers to the four large teeth, fused into an upper and lower plate, which are used for crushing the hard shells of crustaceans and mollusks, their natural prey.

The family includes many familiar species variously called pufferfish , puffers , balloonfish , blowfish , blowies , bubblefish , globefish , swellfish , toadfish , toadies , honey toads , sugar toads , and sea squab . The scientific name refers to the four large teeth, fused into an upper and lower plate, which are used for crushing the hard shells of crustaceans and mollusks , their natural prey.

In certain species, the internal organs, such as the liver, and sometimes the skin, contain tetrodotoxin , and are highly toxic to most animals when eaten; nevertheless, the meat of some species is considered a delicacy in Japan (as , pronounced fugu ), Korea (as , bok , or , bogeo ), and China (as , htn ) when prepared by specially trained chefs who know which part is safe to eat and in what quantity. Other pufferfish species with nontoxic flesh, such as the northern puffer , Sphoeroides maculatus , of Chesapeake Bay , [2] are considered a delicacy elsewhere. They are typically small to medium in size, although a few species can reach lengths greater than 50 cm (20 in).

The puffer‘s unique and distinctive natural defenses help compensate for its slow locomotion. It moves by combining pectoral , dorsal , anal , and caudal fin motions. This makes it highly maneuverable, but very slow, so a comparatively easy predation target.

Its tail fin is mainly used as a rudder, but it can be used for a sudden evasive burst of speed that shows none of the care and precision of its usual movements. The puffer‘s excellent eyesight, combined with this speed burst, is the first and most important defense against predators. It does not always have a lethal effect on large predators, such as sharks, but it can kill humans.

Larval pufferfish are chemically defended by the presence of TTX on the surface of skin, which causes predators to spit them out. Takifugu oblongus , for example, is a fugu puffer that is not poisonous, and toxin level varies widely even in fish that are. Although most puffers are drab, many have bright colors and distinctive markings, [6] and make no attempt to hide from predators.

Dolphins have been filmed expertly handling pufferfish amongst themselves in an apparent attempt to get intoxicated or enter a trance-like state. The dwarf puffers court with males following females, possibly displaying the crests and keels unique to this subgroup of species. After the female accepts his advances, she will lead the male into plants or another form of cover, where she can release eggs for fertilization.

Target-group puffers have also been spawned in aquaria, and follow a similar courting behavior, minus the crest/keel display. Eggs are laid, though, on a flat piece of slate or other smooth, hard material, to which they adhere. The male will guard them until they hatch, carefully blowing water over them regularly to keep the eggs healthy.

It is believed to spawn in bays in a similar manner to saltwater species, as their sperm was found to be motile only at full marine salinities, but actual wild breeding has never been observed. Xenopterus naritus has been reported to be first breed artificially in Sarawak, Northwestern Borneo, in June 2016, which the main purpose is for development in aquaculture of the species. In 2012, males of the species Torquigener albomaculosus were documented carving large geometric, circular structures in the seabed sand in Amami shima , Japan.

The structures serve to attract females, and provide a safe place for them to lay their eggs. They can survive on a completely vegetarian diet if their environment is lacking resources, but prefer an omnivorous food selection. Larger species of pufferfish are able to use their beak-like front teeth to break open clams, mussels, and other shellfish.

The oldest known pufferfish genus is Eotetraodon , from the Lutetian epoch of Middle Eocene Europe, with fossils found in Monte Bolca and the Caucasus Mountains . The Monte Bolca species, E. pygmaeus , coexisted with several other tetraodontiforms, including an extinct species of diodontid, primitive boxfish ( Proaracana and Eolactoria ), and other, totally extinct forms, such as Zignoichthys and the spinacanthids . Pufferfish tetrodotoxin deadens the tongue and lips, and induces dizziness and vomiting, followed by numbness and prickling over the body, rapid heart rate, decreased blood pressure , and muscle paralysis .

The toxin paralyzes the diaphragm muscle and stops the person who has ingested it from breathing. People who live longer than 24 hours typically survive, although possibly after a coma lasting several days. Cases of neurological symptoms, including numbness and tingling of the lips and mouth, have been reported to rise after the consumption of puffers caught in the area of Titusville, Florida , USA.

The Southeast Asian freshwater pufferfish genus Chonerhinos (Tetraodontidae), with descriptions of new species. ^ Itoi, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Saori; Asahina, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Miwa; Ishizuka, Kento; Takimoto, Narumi; Mitsuoka, Ryoko; Yokoyama, Naoto; Detake, Ayumi; Takayanagi, Chie; Eguchi, Miho; Tatsuno, Ryohei; Kawane, Mitsuo; Kokubo, Shota; Takanashi, Shihori; Miura, Ai; Suitoh, Katsuyoshi; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Sugita, Haruo (2014-02-01). ^ Blount, Jonathan D.; Speed, Michael P.; Ruxton, Graeme D.; Stephens, Philip A.

“The first reported artificial propagation of yellow puffer, Xenopterus naritus (Richardson, 1848) from Sarawak, Northwestern Borneo” (PDF) . ^ “Prohibition on Take of Puffer Fish in Volusia, Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, and Martin Counties” . “Mechanics of propulsion by multiple fins: kinematics of aquatic locomotion in the burrfish (Chilomycterus schoepfi)”.

What is the most common type of puffer fish?

Dwarf puffers: Dwarf puffers, or Carinotetraodon travancoricus, are tiny freshwater pufferfish that is native to the rivers of Southwest India. ….Nile puffers: Nile puffers or Tetraodon lineatus are one of the most popular kinds of freshwater pufferfish to keep as a pet.

How many different species of puffer fish are there?

There are more than 120 species of pufferfish worldwide. Most are found in tropical and subtropical ocean waters, but some species live in brackish and even fresh water.

Which puffer fish are not poisonous?

Not all puffers are necessarily poisonous; the flesh of the northern puffer is not toxic (a level of poison can be found in its viscera) and it is considered a delicacy in North America. Takifugu oblongus, for example, is a fugu puffer that is not poisonous, and toxin level varies widely even in fish that are.

Which puffer fish is the most poisonous?

Species. The torafugu, or tiger pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes), is the most prestigious edible species and the most poisonous.

Youll find on this page species belonging to 3 closely related fish families: the Tetraodontidae (pufferfish), the Diodontidae (porcupinefish) and the Ostraciidae (boxfish, trunkfish). Puffers and porcupines are known for their capacity to puff up, while boxfish has kind of an exoskeleton, and sometimes small horns.

They have the ability to puff up in a few seconds by swelling water if they are threatened or stressed. With this balloon shape, they appear much larger than they are, and are especially more difficult to bite for predators.

The blackspotted puffer , which can be light brown, grey, blue-grey or bright yellow, and sometimes grey with a yellow belly, is common on the coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific. Here, encountered in Lagon de la Saline , Runion Island.Porcupinefish also have large external spines, making them looking like spiny balloons when inflated. Most of the pufferfish species are also highly toxic: some parts of the fugu (species from the Takifugu genus), considered a delicacy in Japan, has enough poison to kill around thirty people.

Most species grow to 20 to 50cm in length, but the stellate pufferfish can grow to up to 120cm. Boxfish have a more limited capacity to inflate themselves (only 20 to 30% of their volume), but have a very compact body, and can also release toxins in the event of aggression. They are a small family of around thirty species found in warm seas.

Pufferfish, porcupinefish and boxfish are easy to spot when snorkeling the rocky beds and coral reefs of tropical and subtropical seas, often at very shallow depths. A snorkeler takes a picture of a yellow boxfish at Dhonveli s reef flat, Maldives.The whitespotted boxfish , whose male and female have different colorations, is also common at many spots. Caribbean sharp-nose puffer

Acanthostracion quadricornis Acanthostracion polygonius Valentinnis sharpnose puffer

Bennetts sharpnose puffer Canthigaster janthinoptera Red Sea spotted sharpnose

Black-blotched porcupinefish Spotted sharpnosed puffer Canthigaster punctatissima

They are well known for their dangerous venom, known as tetrodotoxin. But dont worry, they cannot produce it themselves and therefore are mostly harmless in captivity.

CategoryRatingCare Level:AdvancedTemperament:AggressiveColor Form:ColorfulLifespan:10 years or moreSize:1-24 inchesDiet:OmnivoreFamily:TetraodontidaeMinimum Tank Size:10 gallonsTank Set-Up:FreshwaterCompatibility:Best kept aloneAll puffer fish belong to the family Tetraodontidae. They are best kept in a single specimen tank due to their specific feeding times, care needs, and aggression.

These fish do not produce the toxin directly, but instead, they gather bacteria that create the tetrodotoxin for them. Prices can vary between a few dollars to more expensive specimens such as Mbu puffer fish which is around $100. Fahaka Puffer by Earedien (Wiki Commons)Even though they look cute they are very aggressive and territorial particularly during breeding seasons.

They swim over plants or oyster beds looking for small crustaceans, snails, or clams to eat. They are usually found in overgrown riverbanks and places with plenty of hiding spots and like to attack from the shadows. They dig themselves into the sand waiting for a fish to come by and then lunge upward for the kill.

Another peculiar behavior observed among many species is their ability to spit or blow water over the substrate to uncover hidden prey. Their lips are quite full, and puffers use them to test the texture of potential food and decide if it is worth eating. Depending on the species, spikes can be very visible or very thin and invisible (until the puffer inflates).

They all require good camouflage techniques and most are light grey, with a cream-colored base and green above. When they are juveniles they live in a freshwater environment however as adults they need brackish waters. Freshwater puffer fish are very susceptible to diseases, so you need to provide the best environment possible for them.

They also produce a lot of waste and so a good filter is mandatory with a suggested 50% water change weekly. Generally, freshwater puffer fish need a well-planted aquarium with plenty of crevices and hiding places. Ambush predators prefer soft substrates to easily dig and hide in.

Here are the recommended minimum sizes for the most popular freshwater puffer fish: No matter the species, freshwater puffer fishes are extremely territorial and aggressive. They are veracious fin nippers and get bored quite easily, a combination that can result in a catastrophe if paired with other fish.

The most common parasites are usually caused by Protozoa living in their gills, fins, and skin. The most common parasites are known as Oodinium sp., Ichthyobodo sp., Chilodonella sp., and Trichodina sp . One of the most common parasites among ornamental freshwater fish is known as the Ich disease caused by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis .

Scaleless fish, like Puffers, are particularly susceptible to diseases because they lack the first line of defense, scales. It is very important that you are very careful in maintaining the right water conditions and keeping your tank clean. Their teeth are an important aspect to consider as they keep growing during their whole life.

You might need to feed them hard substrate animals such as shellfish, crustaceans, or snails to help them control their teeth growth. Try to not overfeed them; they are very good at earning more food by doing things to try and impress you such as squirting water at the top of the tank. Generally, puffer fish are extremely protective of their eggs however when hatched the parents will probably eat them.

As all of these challenges make breeding these fish and raising their fry incredibly difficult but very rewarding. Puffer fish are found across tropical water bodies, from freshwater to marine environments. There are at least 30 species of freshwater puffer fish around the world, all different in sizes and colors.

Tetraodontidae

The majority of the pufferfish’s species are toxic and some are among the most poisonous vertebrates in the world. In certain species, the internal organs, such as the liver, and sometimes the skin, contain tetrodotoxin, and are highly toxic to most animals when eaten; nevertheless, the meat of some species is considered a delicacy in Japan (as 河豚, pronouncedThe species

Ecology and life history[edit]

The Tetraodontidae contain 193 species of puffers in 28 genera:

Natural defenses[edit]

The puffer‘s unique and distinctive natural defenses help compensate for its slow locomotion. It moves by combining pectoral, dorsal, anal, and caudal fin motions. This makes it highly maneuverable, but very slow, so a comparatively easy predation target. Its tail fin is mainly used as a rudder, but it can be used for a sudden evasive burst of speed that shows none of the care and precision of its usual movements. The puffer‘s excellent eyesight, combined with this speed burst, is the first and most important defense against predators.The pufferfish’s secondary defense mechanism, used if successfully pursued, is to fill its extremely elastic stomach with water (or air when outside the water) until it is much larger and almost spherical in shape. Even if they are not visible when the puffer is not inflated, all puffers have pointed spines, so a hungry predator may suddenly find itself facing an unpalatable, pointy ball rather than a slow, easy meal. Predators that do not heed this warning (or are “lucky” enough to catch the puffer suddenly, before or during inflation) may die from choking, and predators that do manage to swallow the puffer may find their stomachs full of tetrodotoxin (TTX), making puffers an unpleasant, possibly lethal, choice of prey. This neurotoxin is found primarily in the ovaries and liver, although smaller amounts exist in the intestines and skin, as well as trace amounts in muscle. It does not always have a lethal effect on large predators, such as sharks, but it can kill humans.Larval pufferfish are chemically defended by the presence of TTX on the surface of skin, which causes predators to spit them out.Not all puffers are necessarily poisonous; the flesh of the northern puffer is not toxic (a level of poison can be found in its viscera) and it is considered a delicacy in North America.Puffers are able to move their eyes independently, and many species can change the color or intensity of their patterns in response to environmental changes. In these respects, they are somewhat similar to the terrestrial chameleon. Although most puffers are drab, many have bright colors and distinctive markings,Dolphins have been filmed expertly handling pufferfish amongst themselves in an apparent attempt to get intoxicated or enter a trance-like state.

Reproduction[edit]

Many marine puffers have a pelagic, or open-ocean, life stage. Spawning occurs after males slowly push females to the water surface or join females already present. The eggs are spherical and buoyant. Hatching occurs after roughly four days. The fry are tiny, but under magnification have a shape usually reminiscent of a pufferfish. They have a functional mouth and eyes, and must eat within a few days. Brackish-water puffers may breed in bays in a manner similar to marine species, or may breed more similarly to the freshwater species, in cases where they have moved far enough upriver.Reproduction in freshwater species varies quite a bit. The dwarf puffers court with males following females, possibly displaying the crests and keels unique to this subgroup of species. After the female accepts his advances, she will lead the male into plants or another form of cover, where she can release eggs for fertilization. The male may help her by rubbing against her side. This has been observed in captivity, and they are the only commonly captive-spawned puffer species.Target-group puffers have also been spawned in aquaria, and follow a similar courting behavior, minus the crest/keel display. Eggs are laid, though, on a flat piece of slate or other smooth, hard material, to which they adhere. The male will guard them until they hatch, carefully blowing water over them regularly to keep the eggs healthy. His parenting is finished when the young hatch, and the fry are on their own.Information on breeding of specific species is very limited.In 2012, males of the species

Evolution[edit]

Pufferfish diets can vary depending on their environment. Traditionally, their diet consists mostly of algae and small invertebrates. They can survive on a completely vegetarian diet if their environment is lacking resources, but prefer an omnivorous food selection. Larger species of pufferfish are able to use their beak-like front teeth to break open clams, mussels, and other shellfish. Some species of pufferfish have also been known to enact various hunting techniques ranging from ambush to open-water hunting.

Poisoning[edit]

Pufferfish can be lethal if not served properly. Puffer poisoning usually results from consumption of incorrectly prepared puffer soup,The source of tetrodotoxin in puffers has been a matter of debate,Saxitoxin, the cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning and red tide, can also be found in certain puffers.

Philippines[edit]

In September 2012, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources in the Philippines issued a warning not to eat puffer fish, after local fishermen died upon consuming puffer fish for dinner. The warning indicated that puffer fish toxin is 100 times more potent than cyanide.

United States[edit]

Cases of neurological symptoms, including numbness and tingling of the lips and mouth, have been reported to rise after the consumption of puffers caught in the area of Titusville, Florida, USA. The symptoms generally resolve within hours to days, although one affected individual required intubation for 72 hours.

Treatment[edit]

Treatment is mainly supportive and consists of intestinal decontamination with gastric lavage and activated charcoal, and life-support until the toxin is metabolized. Case reports suggest anticholinesterases such as edrophonium may be effective.

Freshwater Puffer Fish Facts & Overview

All puffer fish belong to the family Tetraodontidae.Puffer fish are tropical fish found in marine, brackish and freshwaters across the world. There are over 150 species, and only around 30 of them live in freshwaters. This guide will focus on freshwater puffer fish.They are well known for their ability to puff themselves up with water as a defense mechanism. Once they inflate, their spine protrudes from their body preventing them from being eaten.Don’t be deceived by their appearance! Even though they are very cute, they can be extremely aggressive. They are best kept in a single specimen tank due to their specific feeding times, care needs, and aggression.One of the most known and most studied characteristics about these fishes is their very deadly neurotoxin, known as tetrodotoxin.This is a defense mechanism to protect them in the wild. Luckily not all puffers are poisonous. These fish do not produce the toxin directly, but instead, they gather bacteria that create the tetrodotoxin for them.They gather this bacteria from the diet that they eat in the wild, so no worries, your fish will be toxin-free because they won’t be eating this in the aquarium.Puffers can live up to 10 years in an aquarium if well cared for.They are moderately priced depending on the species. Prices can vary between a few dollars to more expensive specimens such as Mbu puffer fish which is around $100.

Types of Freshwater Puffer Fish

Even though they look cute they are very aggressive and territorial – particularly during breeding seasons.Puffers are ferocious predators, with many different hunting techniques.A bad habit that most puffers have, is that they are fin-nippers. Notorious fin nippers are all the species ofAnother peculiar behavior observed among many species is their ability to spit or blow water over the substrate to uncover hidden prey. They have been known to spit water at you from the surface to ask for more food.

Habitat and Tank Conditions

Freshwater puffer fish are tropical freshwater fish inhabiting water systems in the tropical and temperate regions of the world, such as rivers and lakes.You can find puffers in South East Asia, India, Bangladesh, South America, and Africa.They mainly live in riverbanks with dense vegetation, but they can also be found in lakes (for example the Mbu puffer fish in Lake Tanganyika).

Tank Setup

Freshwater puffer fish are very susceptible to diseases, so you need to provide the best environment possible for them.These fish do best when kept in waters with a pH of 7.0-7.6 and temperatures between 74°-78°F. Other water parameters such as water hardness and currents depend on the specific species and their natural habitats.Most species will be fine in a tank with a low water current (the filter will produce enough of a water current) and a dKH between 8-12.Puffer fish are generally very sensitive to deteriorating water conditions and very susceptible to levels of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia in the water. They also produce a lot of waste and so a good filter is mandatory with a suggested 50% water change weekly.You might want to purchase a double filtration system with heaters and a special lighting system.Generally, freshwater puffer fish need a well-planted aquarium with plenty of crevices and hiding places.Ambush predators prefer soft substrates to easily dig and hide in. Stealth predators require densely planted tanks with lots of tree roots, plants, and crevices. Finally, open water hunters need plenty of open spaces for swimming with elements for them to explore such as rocks, plants, and bogwood.

Tank Mates

Here are the recommended minimum sizes for the most popular freshwater puffer fish:The larger the tank, the better due to the amount of waste they create. These recommendations are for one fish only.Usually, it’s better to keep puffer fish alone; however, there are a few species that can be kept in groups (more on this later).

Keeping Freshwater Puffer Fish Together

Puffer fishes are best kept alone.However, there are a few species that can be kept as a pair or small groups. Figure 8, South American, and the Ceylon puffer can all be kept in small groups.

Care

Freshwater puffer fish do not have any scales so they are very susceptible to ectoparasites. The most common parasites are usually caused by Protozoa living in their gills, fins, and skin.The most common parasites are known asOne of the most common parasites among ornamental freshwater fish is known as the Ich disease caused byPreventing the disease is always better. New additions to your aquarium are potential carriers of disease and bacteria. Try to be careful when introducing new things to your aquarium and make sure to quarantine them.Scaleless fish, like Puffers, are particularly susceptible to diseases because they lack the first line of defense, scales. It is very important that you are very careful in maintaining the right water conditions and keeping your tank clean.Investing in a good filtration system will prevent a lot of problems.

Breeding

Puffer fish are considered omnivores however, they prefer a meat-based diet.In their natural habitats they tend to eat snails, crustaceans, shellfish, and other fish (yes, even whole fish).They will eat pretty much anything you put in the tank. You can feed them live, frozen and dried meat. Bigger size puffers can eat small frozen fish such as lancetfish or whitebait fish.You can also feed them vegetable and plant-based food once or twice a week.Their teeth are an important aspect to consider as they keep growing during their whole life. You might need to feed them hard substrate animals such as shellfish, crustaceans, or snails to help them control their teeth growth.If their teeth grow too long, your fish will struggle to eat and you will need to clip them.Depending on the size of your puffer fish, they require different feeding habits.Try to not overfeed them; they are very good at earning more food by doing things to try and impress you such as squirting water at the top of the tank.