Pictures of Horse Flies?

Do horse flies bite humans?

Aside from the momentary pain, horse fly bites generally aren’t harmful to humans. These bites are usually only a problem for horses. This is because horse flies carry equine infectious anemia, also known as swamp fever. When they bite an equine animal, they can transmit this life-threatening disease.

What do horsefly bites look like?

Horsefly bites. A bite from a horsefly can be very painful and the bitten area of skin will usually be red and raised. You may also experience: a larger red, raised rash (called hives or urticaria) dizziness.

How do you identify horse flies?

The horse fly is easily identified by its dark grey body and large green-metallic eyes. The horse fly can also be spotted by the dark black markings on its transparent wings. Horse flies are very strong fliers, persistent in attacking livestock and equine with a severe bite.

Browse 1,774 horse fly stock photos and images available, or search for horse fly bite or horse fly spray to find more great stock photos and pictures.

horse fly stock illustrations Insects, hand-colored lithograph, published in 1880 Insects: 1) Giant Woodwasp (Urocerus gigas), 2) Ophion ventricosus, 3) Hornet (Vespa crabro), 4) Honeybee (Apis), 5) Large earth bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), 6) Pale giant horse-fly (Tabanus bovinus), 7) Brown Hawker (Aeshna grandis), 8) Banded Demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens), 9) Mayfly (Ephemera vulgata), 10) Phryganea grandis, 11) Common scorpionfly (Panorpa communis), 12) Myrmeleon formicarius, 13) Termite Worker (Termes bellicosus).

Hand-colored lithograph, published in 1880. horse fly stock illustrations Insects: 1) Giant Woodwasp (Urocerus gigas), 2) Ophion ventricosus, 3) Hornet (Vespa crabro), 4) Honeybee (Apis), 5) Large earth bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), 6) Pale giant horse-fly (Tabanus bovinus), 7) Brown Hawker (Aeshna grandis), 8) Banded Demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens), 9) Mayfly (Ephemera vulgata), 10) Phryganea grandis, 11) Common scorpionfly (Panorpa communis), 12) Myrmeleon formicarius, 13) Termite Worker (Termes bellicosus). Hand-colored lithograph, published in 1880.

Horseflies or horseflies[a] are true flies in the family Tabanidae in the insect order Diptera. They are often large and agile in flight, and the females bite animals, including humans, to obtain blood. They prefer to fly in sunlight, avoiding dark and shady areas, and are inactive at night. They are found all over the world except for some islands and the polar regions (Hawaii, Greenland, Iceland). Both horseflies and botflies (Oestridae) are sometimes referred to as gadflies.[3]

The mouthparts of females are formed into a stout stabbing organ with two pairs of sharp cutting blades, and a spongelike part used to lap up the blood that flows from the wound. Horseflies have appeared in literature since Aeschylus in Ancient Greece mentioned them driving people to “madness” through their persistent pursuit.

In general, country-folk did not distinguish between the various biting insects that irritated their cattle and called them all “gad-flies“, from the word “gad” meaning a spike. Chrysops species are known as “deer-flies“, perhaps because of their abundance on moorland where deer roam, [4] and “buffalo-flies“, “moose-flies” and “elephant-flies” emanate from other parts of the world where these animals are found. Adult tabanids are large flies with prominent compound eyes , short antennae composed of three segments, and wide bodies.

In females, the eyes are widely separated but in males, they are almost touching; they are often patterned and brightly coloured in life but appear dull in preserved specimens. The membranous forewings are clear, uniformly shaded grey or brown, or patterned in some species; they have a basal lobe (or calypter) that covers the modified knob-like hindwings or halteres . [9] Deer flies in the genus Chrysops are up to 10 mm (0.4 in) long, have yellow to black bodies and striped abdomens, and membranous wings with dark patches.

The outlines of the adult insect’s head and wings are visible through the pupa , which has seven moveable abdominal segments, all except the front one of which bears a band of setae. [12] Horseflies can lay claim to being the fastest flying insects; the male Hybomitra hinei wrighti has been recorded reaching speeds of up to 145 km (90 mi) per hour when pursuing a female. [9] Horseflies mostly occur in warm areas with suitable moist locations for breeding, but also occupy a wide range of habitats from deserts to alpine meadows.

The first record of a tabanid comes from the Late Jurassic of China, and specimens from the Cretaceous have been found in England, Spain, and possibly South Africa. [17] With a necessity for high-protein food for egg production, the diet of early tabanomorphs was probably predatory, and from this, the bloodsucking habit may have evolved. Tabanid identification is based mostly on adult morphological characters of the head, wing venation, and sometimes the last abdominal segment.

Horseflies in the genus Haematopota typically have speckled wingsA 2015 study by Morita et al. using nucleotide data , aimed to clarify the phylogeny of the Tabanidae and supports three subfamilies. Adult horseflies feed on nectar and plant exudates , and some are important pollinators of certain specialised flowers; [17] several South African and Asian species in the Pangoniinae have spectacularly long probosces adapted for the extraction of nectar from flowers with long, narrow corolla tubes, such as Lapeirousia , [28] and certain Pelargonium . [4] The flies seem to be attracted to a potential victim by its movement, warmth, and surface texture, and by the carbon dioxide it breathes out.

When the insect lands on an animal, it grips the surface with its clawed feet, the labium is retracted, the head is thrust downwards and the stylets slice into the flesh. [34] Horse-fly bites can be painful for a day or more; fly saliva may provoke allergic reactions such as hives and difficulty with breathing. [30] Tabanid bites can make life outdoors unpleasant for humans, and can reduce milk output in cattle.

[37] More recent research by the same lead author shows that the stripes were no less attractive to tabanids, but they merely touchedand could not make a controlled landing to bite. Males usually appear first, but when both sexes have emerged, mating takes place, courtship starting in the air and finishing on the ground. Anecdotal reports of horse-fly bites leading to fatal anaphylaxis in humans have been made, an extremely rare occurrence.

[51] Cattle can be treated with pour-on pyrethroids which may repel the flies, and fitting them with insecticide-impregnated eartags or collars has had some success in killing the insects. [52] The National Health Service of the United Kingdom recommends that the site of the bite should be washed and a cold compress applied. [55] William Shakespeare , inspired by Aeschylus, has Tom o’ Bedlam in King Lear , “Whom the foul fiend hath led through fire and through flame, through ford and whirlpool, o’er bog and quagmire”, driven mad by the constant pursuit.

The physician and naturalist Thomas Muffet wrote that the horse-fly “carries before him a very hard, stiff, and well-compacted sting, with which he strikes through the Oxe his hide; he is in fashion like a great Fly, and forces the beasts for fear of him only to stand up to the belly in water, or else to betake themselves to wood sides, cool shades, and places where the wind blows through.” The ” Blue Tail Fly ” in the eponymous song was probably the mourning horsefly ( Tabanus atratus ), a tabanid with a blue-black abdomen common to the southeastern United States. “The Immelman turn, a pursuit maneuver used by hovering male Hybomitra hinei wrighti (Diptera: Tabanidae”.

“A phylogeny of long-tongued horse flies (Diptera:Tabanidae:Philoliche) with the first cladistic review of higher relationships within the family”. “Preliminary evidence that the long-proboscid fly, Philoliche gulosa , pollinates Disa karooica and its proposed Batesian model Pelargonium stipulaceum ” . “Horsefly bites soar due to PADDLING POOLS, doctors urge Britons to drain water” .

Quoting Natalie Bungay, British Pest Control Association ^ Kazimrov, M.; ulanov, M.; Koznek, M.; Tak, P.; Labuda, M.; Nuttall, P.A. ^ Caro, Tim; Izzo, Amanda; Reiner, Robert C. Jr; Walker, Hannah; Stankowich, Theodore (2014).

Horsefly, Tabanus, against white backgroundHorsefly, Tabanus, against white backgroundhttps://www.alamy.com/licenses-and-pricing/?v=1https://www.alamy.com/horsefly-tabanus-against-white-background-image66752865.html

Horse-fly

Adult horseflies feed on nectar and plant exudates; the males have weak mouthparts and only the females bite animals to obtain enough protein from blood to produce eggs. The mouthparts of females are formed into a stout stabbing organ with two pairs of sharp cutting blades, and a spongelike part used to lap up the blood that flows from the wound. The larvae are predaceous and grow in semiaquatic habitats.Female horseflies can transfer blood-borne diseases from one animal to another through their feeding habit. In areas where diseases occur, they have been known to carry equine infectious anaemia virus, some trypanosomes, the filarial wormHorse-flies have appeared in literature since Aeschylus in Ancient Greece mentioned them driving people to “madness” through their persistent pursuit.

Common names[edit]

Apart from the common name “horseflies“, broad categories of biting, bloodsucking Tabanidae are known by a large number of common names. The word “Tabanus” was first recorded by Pliny the Younger and has survived as the generic name. In general, country-folk did not distinguish between the various biting insects that irritated their cattle and called them all “gad-flies“, from the word “gad” meaning a spike. The most common name is “cleg[g]”, “gleg” or “clag”, which comes from Old Norse and may have originated from the Vikings.

Description[edit]

Adult tabanids are large flies with prominent compound eyes, short antennae composed of three segments, and wide bodies. In females, the eyes are widely separated but in males, they are almost touching; they are often patterned and brightly coloured in life but appear dull in preserved specimens. The terminal segment of the antennae is pointed and is annulated, appearing to be made up of several tapering rings. There are no hairs or arista arising from the antennae. Both head and thorax are clad in short hairs, but no bristles are on the body. The membranous forewings are clear, uniformly shaded grey or brown, or patterned in some species; they have a basal lobe (or calypter) that covers the modified knob-like hindwings or halteres. The tips of the legs have two lobes on the sides (pulvilli) and a central lobe or empodium in addition to two claws that enable them to grip surfaces.Tabanid species range from medium-sized to very large, robust insects. Most have a body length between 5 and 25 mm (0.2 and 1.0 in), with the largest having a wingspan of 60 mm (2.4 in).The larvae are long and cylindrical or spindle shaped with small heads and 12 body segments. They have rings of tubercles (warty outgrowths) known as pseudopods around the segments, and also bands of short setae (bristles). The posterior tip of each larva has a breathing siphon and a bulbous area known as Graber’s organ. The outlines of the adult insect’s head and wings are visible through the pupa, which has seven moveable abdominal segments, all except the front one of which bears a band of setae. The posterior end of the pupa bears a group of spine-like tubercles.Some species, such as deer flies and the Australian March flies, are known for being extremely noisy during flight, though clegs, for example, fly quietly and bite with little warning. Tabanids are agile fliers;

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Horseflies are found worldwide, except for the polar regions, but they are absent from some islands such as Greenland, Iceland, and Hawaii.

Biology[edit]

The first record of a tabanid comes from the Late Jurassic of China, and specimens from the Cretaceous have been found in England, Spain, and possibly South Africa. In the New World, the first discoveries date from the Miocene of Florissant, Colorado. These insects are recognisable as tabanids both from their mouthparts and their wing venation.The Tabanidae are true flies and members of the insect order Diptera.Tabanid identification is based mostly on adult morphological characters of the head, wing venation, and sometimes the last abdominal segment. The genitalia are very simple and do not provide clear species differentiation as in many other insect groups. In the past, most taxonomic treatments considered the family to be composed of three subfamilies: Pangoniinae (tribes Pangoniini, Philolichini, Scionini), Chrysopsinae (tribes Bouvieromyiini, Chrysopsini, Rhinomyzini), and Tabaninae (tribes Diachlorini, Haematopotini, Tabanini).A 2015 study by Morita et al. using nucleotide data, aimed to clarify the phylogeny of the Tabanidae and supports three subfamilies. The subfamilies Pangoniinae and Tabaninae were shown to be monophyletic. The tribes Philolichini, Chrysopsini, Rhinomyzini, and Haematopotini were found to be monophyletic, with the Scionini also being monophyletic apart from the difficult-to-place genusThe Tabaninae lack ocelli (simple eyes) and have no spurs on the tips of their hind tibiae. In the Pangoniinae, ocelli are present and the antennal flagellum (whip-like structure) usually has eight annuli (or rings). In the Chrysopsinae, the antennal flagellum has a basal plate and the flagellum has four annuli. Females have a shining callus on the frons (front of the head between the eyes).Two well-known genera are the common horseflies,

Diet and biting behavior[edit]

Adult horseflies feed on nectar and plant exudates, and some are important pollinators of certain specialised flowers;Both males and females engage in nectar-feeding, but females of most species are anautogenous, meaning they require a blood meal before they are able to reproduce effectively. To obtain the blood, the females, but not the males, bite animals, including humans. The female needs about six days to fully digest her blood meal and after that, she needs to find another host.The mouthparts of females are of the usual dipteran form and consist of a bundle of six chitinous stylets that, together with a fold of the fleshy labium, form the proboscis. On either side of these are two maxillary palps. When the insect lands on an animal, it grips the surface with its clawed feet, the labium is retracted, the head is thrust downwards and the stylets slice into the flesh. Some of these have sawing edges and muscles can move them from side-to-side to enlarge the wound. Saliva containing anticoagulant is injected into the wound to prevent clotting.Attack patterns vary with species; clegs fly silently and prefer to bite humans on the wrist or bare leg; large species of

Predators and parasites[edit]

The eggs of horseflies are often attacked by tiny parasitic wasps, and the larvae are consumed by birds, as well as being paratised by tachinid flies, fungi, and nematodes.

Reproduction[edit]

Mating often occurs in swarms, generally at landmarks such as hilltops. The season, time of day, and type of landmark used for mating swarms are specific to particular species.Eggs are laid on stones or vegetation near water, in clusters of up to 1000, especially on emergent water plants. The eggs are white at first but darken with age. They hatch after about six days, with the emerging larvae using a special hatching spike to open the egg case. The larvae fall into the water or onto the moist ground below.The pupae are brown and glossy, rounded at the head end, and tapering at the other end. Wing and limb buds can be seen and each abdominal segment is fringed with short spines. After about two weeks, metamorphosis is complete, the pupal case splits along the thorax, and the adult fly emerges. Males usually appear first, but when both sexes have emerged, mating takes place, courtship starting in the air and finishing on the ground. The female needs to feed on blood before depositing her egg mass.

As disease vectors[edit]

Tabanids are known vectors for some blood-borne bacterial, viral, protozoan, and worm diseases of mammals, such as the equine infectious anaemia virus and various species ofBlood loss is a common problem in some animals when large flies are abundant. Some animals have been known to lose up to 300 ml (11 imp fl oz; 10 US fl oz) of blood in a single day to tabanid flies, a loss which can weaken or even kill them. Anecdotal reports of horse-fly bites leading to fatal anaphylaxis in humans have been made, an extremely rare occurrence.

Management[edit]

Controlling horseflies is difficult. Malaise traps are most often used to capture them, and these can be modified with the use of baits and attractants that include carbon dioxide or octenol.

Horse-fly bites[edit]

Horse-fly bites can be painful to humans. Usually, a weal (raised area of skin) occurs around the site; other symptoms may include urticaria (a rash), dizziness, weakness, wheezing, and angioedema (a temporary itchy, pink or red swelling occurring around the eyes or lips). A few people experience an allergic reaction.

In literature[edit]

InThe physician and naturalist Thomas Muffet wrote that the horse-fly “carries before him a very hard, stiff, and well-compacted sting, with which he strikes through the Oxe his hide; he is in fashion like a great Fly, and forces the beasts for fear of him only to stand up to the belly in water, or else to betake themselves to wood sides, cool shades, and places where the wind blows through.”Paul Muldoon’s chapbook Binge contains a poem “Clegs and Midges” which uses gadflies, real and metaphoric, “cleg” being a British term for the horse-fly.In Norse mythology Loki took the form of a gadfly to hinder Brokkr during the manufacture of the hammer Mjölnir, weapon of Thor (Hammer of Thor).