Latin Name for Dog?

It may be a language mostly relegated to the past, but Latin continues to provide tons of great inspiration when youre looking for a name for your dog. As the language of ancient Rome and the mother of all Romance languages, Latin is at the root of many of our common words today. Its influence can be seen around the worldfrom France, Italy, and Spain to our very own shoresand you might be surprised to learn how many popular names have classical Latin origins.

To help you out, weve compiled some of our favorite Latin dog names all in one place so you can narrow down your choices and pick a name thats just the right fit for your pup. While the jury is still out on when exactly dogs became our loyal domestic companions (current estimations put the phenomenon at some time between 18,800 years ago and 32,100 years ago) we know that by the time of the foundingand the fallof ancient Rome it was common to have a dog in your care.

Choosing a Latin name for your dog speaks to the long history between humans and canines, and celebrates the bonds that have remained strong for tens of thousands of years. Adrian (the dark one) Anthony (priceless) Benedict (blessed) Camilla (loyal attendant) Celeste (heavenly) Dexter (on the right-hand, favorable) Felicity (luck) Felix (successful) Horace (timekeeper) Lux (light) Marcel (little warrior) Petra (rock) Regina (queen) Rex (king) Rufus (red haired) Whether you go with inspiration from classical Latin or not, picking a name for your dog is a big deal, and its going to be with them for life.

For training purposes, a name that starts with a hard letter such as S, T, or R might be easiest for your dog to pick up on. Names that rhyme with key commands, such as May (stay), Bo (no), and Kitt (sit) could get confusing for your dog, so keep that in mind when making your choice. Dont pick a name that youll be embarrassed to say out loud.

While it may seem silly in the moment, keep in mind that whatever name you choose for your dog is one that youll have to call out regularly, including in public places like the vet and dog park. Its perfectly okay to change your dogs name if you dont like it after a couple of days! Latin names for female dogs tend to be lyrical and feminine, though their meanings often speak to strength and power.

So whether shes a girly-girl or a bit of a tomboy, a Latin name could be the perfect choice for your girl pup. Adoria (glory) Beatrix (she who makes happy) Clara (bright, famous) Erma (noble warrior) Flavia (blonde) Gillian (youthful) Imogene (maiden) Lara (protection) Lavinia (woman of Rome) Margarita (pearl) Marina (of the sea) Nola (bell) Serena (tranquil) Una (one; a uniter) Many of todays most popular boy dog names have Latin origins, including some that you might not even expect.

August (venerable) Cato (intelligent) Crispin (curly-haired) Dominic (lordly) Fabian (bean grower) Major (important) Maximilian (greatest) Miles (soldier) Nigel (dark) Orson (bear cub) Romanus (Roman) Sebastian (revered) Sylvester (wild) Victor (conqueror)

What is the Latin word for domestic dog?

Canis is the Latin word meaning “dog,” and under this genus, he listed the domestic dog, the grey wolf, and the golden jackal. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris and, on the next page, classified the grey wolf as Canis lupus.

What is the Celtic word for dog?

The Irish Gaelic word for “dog” is “ madra,” and there are other Gaelic dog-related words that might make great names for your pet. These include ‘Madigan’ (meaning ‘little dog’), Murphy (meaning ‘hound of the sea’) and Conan (meaning ‘hound.

What dog's name means faithful in Latin?

Having grown fond of the dog, the couple decided to formally adopt the dog. He was named Fido, which comes from the Latin word meaning “faithful”.

What is a unique name for a dog?

Bear..Zeus..Ocean..Orion..Sabre..Neo..Ajay..Alba.

If you want a different and elegant name for your puppy, then you need our list of Latin dog names. We are going to walk you through your list and guide. They will bring you suggestions that will match your pet perfectly.

Feel free to use them to name your new puppy. We compiled Latin words from different spheres such as:

nature, music, religion, history, and general Latin culture. You only need to explore it to inspire yourself, just some minutes and you will find that perfect name! Here are several options of latin dog names for you to choose from:

all gendersonly maleonly female Happy or joyful in Latin. Wise or extremely knowledgeable in Latin. A follower of Christ in Latin.

Gentle or merciful in Latin. Upper air or bright in Latin. Archway or door in Latin.

Home of the ancient Spartans. Bringer ogf light in Latin. First planet in the solar system.

Grain mill worker in Latin. Used by ancient Romans as paper. Noble birth of patrician in Latin.

Somone who lives the farthest. All languages have words that allure to strength, power, and authority, and Latin is not the exception. Especially with its string of famous Latin Emperors like Baldwin or Yolanda .

Therefore, we have found such words and we have included it in our list. So, along with each name, you will also find recommendations on how to use it. Indeed, some names are more appropriate for specific breeds and traits.

For example, if your dog is tiny, call them Minor . Is your dog strong and powerful and looks like a leader? Call him Valerian , because it means exactly that in Latin, the one who leads .

And even better, not many owners are interested in Historical topics. Therefore, your dog will boast a unique, meaningful and powerful name. There is a nice variant of Valerian that puts more emphasis on the conquering nature of your dog: Varian .

If you feel like your pet has such a huge drive, then this name will be the ideal match. A nice alternative to the previous name that means exactly the same is Vincent . We like this option because it sounds bold, strong and elegant.

If you want to highlight that your dog is simply exceptional, then you could call it Major . An alternative would be Vitus , which means the same thing. Both are excellent for breeds with leadership traits such as the German Shepherd and the Dobermann .

Then you could call it Orson , which is a Latin word that refers to such meaning. Would you like to highlight the greatness of your dog? Then you could call it Magnus , which means the great one .

A phenomenal choice for big dog breeds, or if you prefer, you can give it an ironic twist by giving it to a small dog with a big attitude. Is your dog independent, runs fast and is courageous and strong? Then you could call it Agrippa , which means Wild horse .

If integrity is the highest virtue for you, then you should call your pet Honorius . This Latin word meaning conferring honor . To us, it is one of the most powerful Latin dog names you will find; it is a solid choice.

Finally, for a dog with a burning heart and great courage, you could use the name Ignatius , which means full of fire . Bonus points if your dog has a red coat like the Tibetan Mastiff . As long as your dog is a real force of nature , this name will fit the bill perfectly.

Latin Dog Names 175+ Ideas Based On Latin Culture, Food & People! Religion and divinity are huge themes for obtaining names. And in our case, they served us well to gather several elegant Latin dog names.

Dominicus is our first pick and one of our most powerful dog names because it means Godly . In consequence, it is a solid choice for any dog that you deem worthy of it. It is especially good for a religious owner, so if that is you, you now have in your hands an amazing pick.

If so, then you should name it Theodorus , which means gift from God . Want a name that means almost the same, but for a female pup? This name means divine announcement from the Gods .

Like our previous recommendation, it is a nice pick if you feel like your puppy is a godsend. A real blessing into your life! In our opinion, these names are ideal because they are exotic and original.

They have beautiful meanings that transmit good vibes whenever you hear them. People will be intrigued to discover the meaning behind them and why you decided to pick it for your dog. Like that, we arrived at the end of our comprehensive list of the best Latin dog names .

Our tips will come in handy when you examine all of our options, which you can filter by gender. Everything will become a whole lot easier because we are taking you by the hand and guide you onto the right path. If you have any questions or need further help, do not hesitate to contact us, so we can assist you to find the perfect Latin-inspired name for your dog!

Selection of popular Latin dog breeds.

The dog or domestic dog, (Canis familiaris[4][5] or Canis lupus familiaris[5]) is a domesticated descendant of the wolf which is characterized by an upturning tail. The dog derived from an ancient, extinct wolf,[6][7] and the modern grey wolf is the dog‘s nearest living relative.[8] The dog was the first species to be domesticated,[9][8] by huntergatherers over 15,000 years ago,[7] before the development of agriculture.[1]

Over the millennia, dogs became uniquely adapted to human behavior, and the human-canine bond has been a topic of frequent study. The dog has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.

They perform many roles for humans, such as hunting , herding , pulling loads , protection , assisting police and the military , companionship , therapy , and aiding disabled people . In 1758, the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae , the two-word naming of species ( binomial nomenclature ). [2] Linnaeus considered the dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its upturning tail ( cauda recurvata ), which is not found in any other canid .

Wozencraft included hallstromi (the New Guinea singing dog) as another name ( junior synonym ) for the dingo. Mammalogists have noted the inclusion of familiaris and dingo together under the “domestic dog” clade [17] with some debating it. Location of a dog‘s carnassials ; the inside of the 4th upper premolar aligns with the outside of the 1st lower molar , working like scissor bladesThe CretaceousPaleogene extinction event occurred 65 million years ago and brought an end to the dinosaurs and the appearance of the first carnivorans.

This dental arrangement has been modified by adaptation over the past 60 million years for diets composed of meat, for crushing vegetation, or for the loss of the carnassial function altogether as in seals, sea lions, and walruses. The carnivoran ancestors of the dog-like caniforms and the cat-like feliforms began their separate evolutionary paths just after the end of the dinosaurs. The first members of the dog family Canidae appeared 40 million years ago, of which only its subfamily the Caninae survives today in the form of the wolf-like and fox-like canines.

Within the Caninae, the first members of genus Canis appeared six million years ago, the ancestors of modern domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes , and golden jackals. Contextual, isotopic, genetic, and morphological evidence shows that this dog was not a local wolf. [9] Genetic studies suggest a domestication process commencing over 25,000 years ago, in one or several wolf populations in either Europe, the high Arctic, or eastern Asia.

In 2021, a literature review of the current evidence infers that the dog was domesticated in Siberia 23,000 years ago by ancient North Siberians , then later dispersed eastward into the Americas and westward across Eurasia. In the Victorian era , directed human selection developed the modern dog breeds , which resulted in a vast range of phenotypes. The skull, body, and limb proportions vary significantly between breeds, with dogs displaying more phenotypic diversity than can be found within the entire order of carnivores.

These breeds possess distinct traits related to morphology, which include body size, skull shape, tail phenotype, fur type and colour. [8] Their behavioural traits include guarding, herding, and hunting, [8] retrieving, and scent detection. The most striking example of this dispersal is that of the numerous modern breeds of European lineage during the Victorian era .

The dogs skeleton is well adapted for running; the vertebrae on the neck and back have extensions for powerful back muscles to connect to, the long ribs provide plenty of room for the heart and lungs, and the shoulders are unattached to the skeleton allowing great flexibility. Breeds may have an occasional “blaze,” stripe, or “star” of white fur on their chest or underside. As with many canids, one of the primary functions of a dog‘s tail is to communicate their emotional state, which can be crucial in getting along with others.

Some breeds of dogs are prone to specific genetic ailments such as elbow and hip dysplasia , blindness , deafness , pulmonic stenosis , cleft palate , and trick knees . Several human foods and household ingestibles are toxic to dogs, including chocolate solids , causing theobromine poisoning , onions and garlic , causing thiosulphate , sulfoxide or disulfide poisoning, grapes and raisins , macadamia nuts , and xylitol . Signs of ingestion can include copious vomiting (e.g., from eating cigar butts) or diarrhea .

Neutering According to the Humane Society of the United States , three to four million dogs and cats are euthanized each year. A common breeding practice for pet dogs is mating between close relatives (e.g., between half and full siblings). [51] Inbreeding depression is considered to be due mainly to the expression of homozygous deleterious recessive mutations.

[52] Outcrossing between unrelated individuals, including dogs of different breeds, results in the beneficial masking of deleterious recessive mutations in progeny. [57] As the oldest domesticated species, dogs’ minds inevitably have been shaped by millennia of contact with humans. These abilities are not possessed by the dog‘s closest canine relatives or other highly intelligent mammals, such as great apes , but rather parallel to children’s social-cognitive skills.

These gene variations were unlikely to have been the result of natural evolution and indicate selection on both morphology and behavior during dog domestication. [60] Traits of high sociability and lack of fear in dogs may include genetic modifications related to Williams-Beuren syndrome in humans, which cause hypersociability at the expense of problem-solving ability. A study with Rico , a Border Collie , showed that he knew the labels of over 200 different items.

He inferred the names of novel things by exclusion learning and correctly retrieved those new items immediately and four weeks after the initial exposure. One study of canine cognitive abilities found that dogs’ capabilities are no more exceptional than those of other animals, such as horses , chimpanzees , or cats . [65] One limited study of 18 household dogs found that they lacked spatial memory, and were more focussed on the “what” of a task rather than the “where”.

[68] Another study revealed that after undergoing training to solve a simple manipulation task, dogs faced with an insoluble version of the same problem look at the human, while socialized wolves do not. In some instances, wolves have displayed an uncharacteristic fearlessness of humans and buildings when attacking dogs to the extent that they have to be beaten off or killed. [83] Siberian tigers in the Amur river region have killed dogs in the middle of villages.

[13][86][87] Compared to wolves, dogs from agricultural societies have extra copies of amylase and other genes involved in starch digestion that contribute to an increased ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet. Similar to humans, some dog breeds produce amylase in their saliva and are classified as having a high starch diet. [104] Pet dog populations grew significantly after World War II as suburbanization increased.

There have been two significant trends occurring within the second half of the 20th century in pet dogs’ changing status. A vast range of commodity forms aims to transform a pet dog into an ideal companion. Dog meat is consumed in some East Asian countries, including Korea , [126] [ page needed ] ChinaVietnam and the Philippines , [127] which dates back to antiquity.

[128] Based on limited data, it is estimated that 1316 million dogs are killed and consumed in Asia every year. [130] Following the Sui and Tang dynasties of the first millennium, however, people living on northern China’s plains began to eschew eating dogs, which is likely due to Buddhism and Islam’s spread, two religions that forbade the consumption of certain animals, including the dog. As members of the upper classes shunned dog meat, it gradually became a social taboo to eat it, even though the general population continued to consume it for centuries afterward.

Dog fat is also reportedly believed to be beneficial for the lungs in some parts of Poland [133][134] and Central Asia. The most popular Korean dog dish is called bosintang , a spicy stew meant to balance the body’s heat during the summer months. Followers of the custom claim this is done to ensure good health by balancing one’s gi , or the body’s vital energy.

A 19th-century version of bosintang explains that the dish is prepared by boiling dog meat with scallions and chili powder. While the dishes are still prevalent in Korea with a segment of the population, dog is not as widely consumed as beef, pork and chicken. [142] Significant dog bites affect tens of millions of people globally each year.

Children in mid-to-late childhood are the largest percentage bitten by dogs, with a greater risk of injury to the head and neck. [143] Sharp claws with powerful muscles behind them can lacerate flesh in a scratch that can lead to serious infections. The scientific evidence is mixed as to whether a dog‘s companionship can enhance human physical health and psychological well-being.

Studies suggesting that there are benefits to physical health and psychological well-being [152] have been criticized for being poorly controlled. Earlier studies have shown that people who keep pet dogs or cats exhibit better mental and physical health than those who do not, making fewer visits to the doctor and being less likely to be on medication than non-guardians. A 2005 paper states “recent research has failed to support earlier findings that pet ownership is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, a reduced use of general practitioner services, or any psychological or physical benefits on health for community dwelling older people.

Research has, however, pointed to significantly less absenteeism from school through sickness among children who live with pets.” In one study, new guardians reported a highly significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following pet acquisition. Human guardians are significantly less likely to die within one year of an acute myocardial infarction than those who did not own dogs.

For example, when in a pet dog‘s presence, people show reductions in cardiovascular, behavioral and psychological indicators of anxiety. [157] Other health benefits are gained from exposure to immune-stimulating microorganisms, which can protect against allergies and autoimmune diseases according to the hygiene hypothesis . [158] One study indicated that wheelchair users experience more positive social interactions with strangers when accompanied by a dog than when they are not.

[161] Animal-assisted intervention research has shown that animal-assisted therapy with a dog can increase social behaviors, such as smiling and laughing, among people with Alzheimer’s disease. [162] One study demonstrated that children with ADHD and conduct disorders who participated in an education program with dogs and other animals showed increased attendance, increased knowledge and skill objectives and decreased antisocial and violent behavior compared with those not in an animal-assisted program. Dogs were depicted to symbolize guidance , protection , loyalty , fidelity , faithfulness , alertness , and love .

[166] Stories of dogs guarding the gates of the underworld recur throughout Indo-European mythologies [168] and may originate from Proto-Indo-European religion . [173] Therefore, Sunni Malaki and Hanafi jurists permit the trade of and keeping of dogs as pets. url= https://books.google.com/books?id=JgAMbNSt8ikC&pg=PA576 ^ a b Alvares, Francisco; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Campbell, Liz A.D.; Godinho, Rachel; Hatlauf, Jennifer; Jhala, Yadvendradev V. ; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Krofel, Miha; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Senn, Helen; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio ; Viranta, Suvi; Werhahn, Geraldine (2019).

^ Bergstrm, Anders; Frantz, Laurent; Schmidt, Ryan; Ersmark, Erik; Lebrasseur, Ophelie; Girdland-Flink, Linus; Lin, Audrey T.; Stor, Jan; Sjgren, Karl-Gran; Anthony, David; Antipina, Ekaterina; Amiri, Sarieh; Bar-Oz, Guy; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I.; Bulatovi, Jelena; Brown, Dorcas; Carmagnini, Alberto; Davy, Tom; Fedorov, Sergey; Fiore, Ivana; Fulton, Deirdre; Germonpr, Mietje; Haile, James; Irving-Pease, Evan K.; Jamieson, Alexandra; Janssens, Luc; Kirillova, Irina; Horwitz, Liora Kolska; Kuzmanovic-Cvetkovi, Julka; Kuzmin, Yaroslav; Losey, Robert J.; Dizdar, Daria Lonjak; Mashkour, Marjan; Novak, Mario; Onar, Vedat; Orton, David; Pasaric, Maja; Radivojevic, Miljana; Rajkovic, Dragana; Roberts, Benjamin; Ryan, Hannah; Sablin, Mikhail; Shidlovskiy, Fedor; Stojanovic, Ivana; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Trantalidou, Katerina; Ulln, Inga; Villaluenga, Aritza; Wapnish, Paula; Dobney, Keith; Gtherstrm, Anders; Linderholm, Anna; Daln, Love; Pinhasi, Ron; Larson, Greger; Skoglund, Pontus (2020). ^ Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wang, Guo-Dong; Larson, Greger; Vonholdt, Bridgett M.; Davis, Brian W.; Jagannathan, Vidyha; Hitte, Christophe; Wayne, Robert K.; Zhang, Ya-Ping (2019). “Dog10K: An international sequencing effort to advance studies of canine domestication, phenotypes, and health” .

CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ( link ) ^ Jackson, Stephen M.; Groves, Colin P.; Fleming, Peter J.S. xi24 Chapter 1 Bradley Smith ^ a b Perri, Angela R.; Feuerborn, Tatiana R.; Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Larson, Greger; Malhi, Ripan S.; Meltzer, David J.; Witt, Kelsey E. (2021). Janssens, Luc; Giemsch, Liane; Schmitz, Ralf; Street, Martin; Van Dongen, Stefan; Cromb, Philippe (2018).

^ Irving-Pease, Evan K.; Ryan, Hannah; Jamieson, Alexandra; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A.; Larson, Greger; Frantz, Laurent A. F. (2018). Thalmann, O; Shapiro, B; Cui, P; Schuenemann, V. J; Sawyer, S. K; Greenfield, D. L; Germonpre, M. B; Sablin, M. V; Lopez-Giraldez, F; Domingo-Roura, X; Napierala, H; Uerpmann, H.-P; Loponte, D. M; Acosta, A. “Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs”.

^ Niener, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Malkemper, Erich Pascal ; Gross, Julia Christina; Burda, Hynek; Winklhofer, Michael; Peichl, Leo (2016). “Longevity of British breeds of dog and its relationships with sex, size, cardiovascular variables and disease”. Although the cause of pet overpopulation is multifaceted, the relative lack of owners choosing to spay or neuter their animals is a major contributing factor.

“Genetic diversity, inbreeding and breeding practices in dogs: results from pedigree analyses”. “Inbreeding impact on litter size and survival in selected canine breeds” (PDF) . ^ van der Beek S, Nielen AL, Schukken YH, Brascamp EW (1999).

Recruitment of striatonigral disinhibitory and nigrotectal inhibitory GABAergic pathways during the organization of defensive behavior by mice in a dangerous environment with the venomous snake Bothrops alternatus [ Reptilia, Viperidae ] Synapse 2015:n/an/a ^ Coppinger R, Schneider R: Evolution of working dogs. ^ Bridgett M. von Holdt; Emily Shuldiner; Ilana Janowitz Koch; Rebecca Y. Kartzinel; Andrew Hogan; Lauren Brubaker; Shelby Wanser; Daniel Stahler; Clive D.L. “Structural variants in genes associated with human Williams-Beuren syndrome underlie stereotypical hypersociability in domestic dogs” .

^ Sluka, Christina M.; Stanko, Kathleen; Campbell, Alexander; Cceres, Johanel; Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Wheeler, Aidan; Bradley, Jordan; Allen, Colin (2018). ^ Coren, Stanley How To Speak Dog: Mastering the Art of Dog-Human Communication , 2000 Simon & Schuster, New York. ^ a b Young, Julie K.; Olson, Kirk A.; Reading, Richard P.; Amgalanbaatar, Sukh; Berger, Joel (1 February 2011).

6993 ^ Kojola, Ilpo; Ronkainen, Seppo; Hakala, Antero; Heikkinen, Samuli; Kokko, Sanna (2004). ^ Pajic, Petar; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Dean, Kirsten; Neznanova, Lubov; Romano, Rose-Anne; Garneau, Danielle; Daugherity, Erin; Globig, Anja; Ruhl, Stefan; Gokcumen, Omer (14 May 2019). “Independent amylase gene copy number bursts correlate with dietary preferences in mammals” .

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Tips For Naming Your Dog

Even before humans had written language, they had dogs. While the jury is still out on when exactly dogs became our loyal domestic companions (current estimations put the phenomenon at some time between 18,800 years ago and 32,100 years ago) we know that by the time of the founding—and the fall—of ancient Rome it was common to have a dog in your care. Many at the time had dogs for hunting or guarding purposes, but spoiled lap dogs were not unheard of either. Choosing a Latin name for your dog speaks to the long history between humans and canines, and celebrates the bonds that have remained strong for tens of thousands of years. Here are some of the most popular Latin and Latin-inspired dog names.

Male Latin Dog Names

You don’t become mother of all Romance languages without a little beauty. Latin names for female dogs tend to be lyrical and feminine, though their meanings often speak to strength and power. So whether she’s a girly-girl or a bit of a tomboy, a Latin name could be the perfect choice for your girl pup.

Dog

TheDue to their long association with humans, dogs have expanded to a large number of domestic individualsThe dog has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.

Taxonomy

In 1758, the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in hisIn 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicated that the domestic dog may have originated from the grey wolf, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog breeds having developed at a time when human communities were more isolated from each other.In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN/Species Survival Commission’s Canid Specialist Group considered the dingo and the New Guinea singing dog to be feral

Evolution

The Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event occurred 65 million years ago and brought an end to the dinosaurs and the appearance of the first carnivorans.The carnivoran ancestors of the dog-like caniforms and the cat-like feliforms began their separate evolutionary paths just after the end of the dinosaurs. The first members of the dog family Canidae appeared 40 million years ago,

Domestication

The earliest remains generally accepted to be those of a domesticated dog were discovered in Bonn-Oberkassel, Germany. Contextual, isotopic, genetic, and morphological evidence shows that this dog was not a local wolf.This timing indicates that the dog was the first species to be domesticatedThe dog is a classic example of a domestic animal that likely travelled a commensal pathway into domestication.

Breeds

Dogs are the most variable mammal on earth with around 450 globally recognized dog breeds.

Skeleton

All healthy dogs, regardless of their size and type, have an identical skeletal structure with the exception of the number of bones in the tail, although there is significant skeletal variation between dogs of different types.Compared to the dog‘s wolf-like ancestors, selective breeding since domestication has seen the dog’s skeleton greatly enhanced in size for larger types as mastiffs and miniaturised for smaller types such as terriers; dwarfism has been selectively utilised for some types where short legs are advantageous such as dachshunds and corgis.The dog‘s skull has identical components regardless of breed type, but there is significant divergence in terms of skull shape between types.

Senses

A dog‘s senses include vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and sensitivity to Earth’s magnetic field. Another study has suggested that dogs can see Earth’s magnetic field.

Coat

The coats of domestic dogs are of two varieties: “double” being familiar with dogs (as well as wolves) originating from colder climates, made up of a coarse guard hair and a soft down hair, or “single,” with the topcoat only. Breeds may have an occasional “blaze,” stripe, or “star” of white fur on their chest or underside.

Tail

There are many different shapes for dog tails: straight, straight up, sickle, curled, or corkscrew. As with many canids, one of the primary functions of a dog‘s tail is to communicate their emotional state, which can be crucial in getting along with others. In some hunting dogs the tail is traditionally docked to avoid injuries.

Health

Some breeds of dogs are prone to specific genetic ailments such as elbow and hip dysplasia, blindness, deafness, pulmonic stenosis, cleft palate, and trick knees. Two severe medical conditions significantly affecting dogs are pyometra, affecting unspayed females of all breeds and ages, and Gastric dilatation volvulus (bloat), which affects larger breeds or deep-chested dogs. Both of these are acute conditions and can kill rapidly. Dogs are also susceptible to parasites such as fleas, ticks, mites, hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms, which is a roundworm species that lives in the hearts of dogs.Several human foods and household ingestibles are toxic to dogs, including chocolate solids, causing theobromine poisoning, onions and garlic, causing thiosulphate, sulfoxide or disulfide poisoning, grapes and raisins, macadamia nuts, and xylitol.Dogs are also vulnerable to some of the same health conditions as humans, including diabetes, dental and heart disease, epilepsy, cancer, hypothyroidism, and arthritis.

Lifespan

The typical lifespan of dogs varies widely among breeds, but for most, the median longevity (the age at which half the dogs in a population have died and half are still alive) ranges from 10 to 13 years.

Reproduction

In domestic dogs, sexual maturity happens around six months to one year for both males and females, although this can be delayed until up to two years of age for some large breeds, and is the time at which female dogs will have their first estrous cycle. They will experience subsequent estrous cycles semiannually, during which the body prepares for pregnancy. At the peak of the cycle, females will become estrous, mentally and physically receptive to copulation. Because the ova survive and can be fertilized for a week after ovulation, more than one male can sire the same litter.Fertilization typically occurs two to five days after ovulation; 14–16 days after ovulation, the embryo attaches to the uterus and after seven to eight more days, a heartbeat is detectable.Dogs bear their litters roughly 58 to 68 days after fertilization,

Neutering

Neutering refers to the sterilization of animals, usually by removing the male’s testicles or the female’s ovaries and uterus, to eliminate the ability to procreate and reduce sex drive. Because of dogs’ overpopulation in some countries, many animal control agencies, such as the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be neutered, so that they do not have undesired puppies that may later be euthanized.According to the Humane Society of the United States, three to four million dogs and cats are euthanized each year.Neutering reduces problems caused by hypersexuality, especially in male dogs.

Inbreeding depression

A common breeding practice for pet dogs is mating between close relatives (e.g., between half and full siblings).In a study of seven dog breeds (the Bernese Mountain Dog, Basset Hound, Cairn Terrier, Brittany, German Shepherd Dog, Leonberger, and West Highland White Terrier), it was found that inbreeding decreases litter size and survival.

Behavior

Dog behavior is the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of the domestic dog (individuals or groups) to internal and external stimuli.Unlike other domestic species selected for production-related traits, dogs were initially selected for their behaviors.

Intelligence

Dog intelligence is the dog‘s ability to perceive information and retain it as knowledge for applying to solve problems. Studies of two dogs suggest that dogs can learn by inference and have advanced memory skills. A study with Rico, a Border Collie, showed that he knew the labels of over 200 different items. He inferred the names of novel things by exclusion learning and correctly retrieved those new items immediately and four weeks after the initial exposure. A study of another Border Collie, “Chaser,” documented his learning and memory capabilities. He had learned the names and could associate by verbal command over 1,000 words.One study of canine cognitive abilities found that dogs’ capabilities are no more exceptional than those of other animals, such as horses, chimpanzees, or cats.Dogs demonstrate a theory of mind by engaging in deception.

Communication

Dog communication is how dogs convey information to other dogs, understand messages from humans and translate the information that dogs are transmitting.

Population

The dog is probably the most widely abundant large carnivoran living in the human environment.

Competitors and predators

Although dogs are the most abundant and widely distributed terrestrial carnivores, feral and free-ranging dogs’ potential to compete with other large carnivores is limited by their strong association with humans.Wolves kill dogs wherever they are found together.Coyotes and big cats have also been known to attack dogs. In particular, leopards are known to have a preference for dogs and have been recorded to kill and consume them, no matter what their size.

Roles with humans

As a domesticated or semi-domesticated animal, the dog is nearly universal among human societies. Notable exceptions once included:Dogs were introduced to Antarctica as sled dogs, but were later outlawed by international agreement due to the possible risk of spreading infections.

Pets

It is estimated that three-quarters of the world’s dog population lives in the developing world as feral, village, or community dogs, with pet dogs uncommon.”The most widespread form of interspecies bonding occurs between humans and dogs”There have been two significant trends occurring within the second half of the 20th century in pet dogs’ changing status. The first has been “commodification,” shaping it to conform to social expectations of personality and behavior.A vast range of commodity forms aims to transform a pet dog into an ideal companion.The majority of contemporary dog owners describe their pet as part of the family, although some ambivalence about the relationship is evident in the popular reconceptualization of the dog-human family as a pack.Increasingly, human family-members engage in activities centered on the dog‘s perceived needs and interests, or in which the dog is an integral partner, such as dog dancing and dog yoga.According to statistics published by the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association in the National Pet Owner Survey in 2009–2010, an estimated 77.5 million people in the United States have pet dogs.A study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare humans and dogs showed that dogs have the same response to voices and use the same parts of the brain as humans do. This gives dogs the ability to recognize human emotional sounds, making them friendly social pets to humans.

Workers

Dogs have lived and worked with humans in many roles. In addition to dogs’ role as companion animals, dogs have been bred for herding livestock (collies, sheepdogs),Various kinds of service dogs and assistance dogs, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs and psychiatric service dogs, assist individuals with disabilities.

Athletes and models

People often enter their dogs in competitions, such as breed-conformation shows or sports, including racing, sledding and agility competitions. In conformation shows, also referred to as breed shows, a judge familiar with the specific dog breed evaluates individual purebred dogs for conformity with their established breed type as described in the breed standard. As the breed standard only deals with the dog‘s externally observable qualities (such as appearance, movement and temperament), separately tested qualities (such as ability or health) are not part of the judging in conformation shows.

Food

Dog meat is consumed in some East Asian countries, including Korea,In Korea, the primary dog breed raised for meat, theThe most popular Korean dog dish is called bosintang, a spicy stew meant to balance the body’s heat during the summer months. Followers of the custom claim this is done to ensure good health by balancing one’s

Health risks

In 2018, the WHO reported that 59,000 people died globally from rabies, with 59.6% in Asia and 36.4% in Africa. Rabies is a disease for which dogs are the most important vector.In the U.S., cats and dogs are a factor in more than 86,000 falls each year.

Health benefits

Dogs suffer from the same common disorders as humans; these include cancer, diabetes, heart disease and neurologic disorders. Their pathology is similar to humans, as is their response to treatment and their outcomes. Researchers are identifying the genes associated with dog diseases similar to human disorders, but lack mouse models to find cures for both dogs and humans. The genes involved in canine obsessive-compulsive disorders led to the detection of four genes in humans’ related pathways.The scientific evidence is mixed as to whether a dog‘s companionship can enhance human physical health and psychological well-being.A 2005 paper states “recent research has failed to support earlier findings that pet ownership is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, a reduced use of general practitioner services, or any psychological or physical benefits on health for community dwelling older people. Research has, however, pointed to significantly less absenteeism from school through sickness among children who live with pets.”People with pet dogs took considerably more physical exercise than those with cats and those without pets. The results provide evidence that keeping pets may have positive effects on human health and behavior and that for guardians of dogs, these effects are relatively long-term.The health benefits of dogs can result from contact with dogs in general, not solely from having dogs as pets. For example, when in a pet dog‘s presence, people show reductions in cardiovascular, behavioral and psychological indicators of anxiety.Using dogs and other animals as a part of therapy dates back to the late 18th century, when animals were introduced into mental institutions to help socialize patients with mental disorders.

Cultural importance

Dogs were depicted to symbolize guidance, protection, loyalty, fidelity, faithfulness, alertness, and love.In mythology, dogs often serve as pets or as watchdogs.In Christianity, dogs represent faithfulness.