German Shepherd Type Dogs?

Technically, the White Shepherd is just a slightly different coloration of the German Shepherd, though they have been recognized as their own breed by the UKC.

In fact, Malinois are often used to play German Shepherds on television, though their coats are thinner often with more brown than black. Malinois makes excellent working dogs, but they may not be the best for children due to their temperament.

This breed of dog requires significant amounts of exercise and enrichment to prevent potentially destructive behavior from surfacing. That said, Malinois is one of the smartest dogs, apt to the training of advanced commands and eager to learn. As noted by the AKC, you need to spend plenty of time working with a Malinois, but they form some of the strongest bonds.

While the eponymous white coat may appear beautiful, it is worth noting that this breed is the result of more inbreeding than most others. Thankfully, this development did not create serious health issues uncharacteristic of the German Shepherd breed in general. As such, BEOs make excellent working dogs and are used for a wide variety of tasks in Russia.

Like the Malinois, Tervuren is another Belgian dog, though its distinctive coat helps prevent it from being mistaken for a German Shepherd. Much like the Malinois, the Tervuren bounds with endless energy, though their personalities differ in some important ways. While they make good watchdogs, Tervurens are not as aggressive or prey driven as Malinois.

Due to their black mask face markings and reddish body, this breed presents a striking appearance. Instead, the Laekenois coat looks wooly, almost wiry, in nature, and is much lighter in color than most of the other breeds on our list. Laekenois have similar levels of energy as other Belgian Shepherd breeds but are known for being a bit more affectionate and good-natured.

The final Belgian Shepherd breed on our list, the Groenendael might be the most visually striking due to its mostly black coloration. However, they bond extremely well and are noted for suffering separation anxiety when left alone for long periods of time. One of the better working dogs, Dutch Shepherds takes quickly to training such that they can be left to their tasks without the oversight of their master.

Dutch Shepherds are also great with children and other dogs but show the characteristic wariness towards strangers. A breed that might otherwise be mistaken for the White Shepherd covered earlier, the Berger Blanc Suisse hails from Switzerland instead of the Americas. One of the biggest differences between the Berger Blanc Suisse and other shepherds is their energy level.

On top of that, the Berger Blanc Suisse displays are far calmer, more mellow disposition. This makes them great for kids and other animals, and they do not display nearly the same level of suspicion towards strangers as other shepherds. Recognized by the FCI , The Carpathian Shepherd is one of the larger breeds on our list, able to reach weights in excess of 100 pounds.

In fact, the Carpathian Shepherd still guards flocks of sheep against even bears to this very day. The Shiloh Shepherd can also display a thicker, plush coat than their German cousins. Noted by the SSRC , one of the main intentions when making this breed is a calmer temperament.

In fact, the development of the breed requires temperament testing in order to be certified by its focused clubs. Despite their imposing size and fearsome appearance, the American Alsatian is not a working dog. Instead, this breed is noted for its calm, friendly demeanor and was bred primarily to be a companion.

The Northern Inuit is another breed designed to look like a wolf, but it takes a completely different approach. Excluding the English Mastiff and Great Pyrenees, the Northern Inuit is the only breed on our list noted for being a wolf hybrid. However, there is no getting around the fact that the wolf blood of the Northern Inuit makes itself known through its sheer size and personality.

As befits a wolf hybrid, the Northern Inuit is definitely not for novice owners and carries with it a stubborn streak and can be fairly difficult to train though they are intelligent. As reported by National Geographic , it is worth noting that the Northern Inuit is the breed used for the Direwolves on Game of Thrones. As such, this should definitely not be mistaken as anything other than a German Shepherd, but their rarity can make finding one extremely difficult.

They make excellent working dogs and are extremely protective of their family, demonstrating the characteristic wariness of strangers common with German Shepherds. Looking a bit more like the Carpathian Shepherd already covered, this is a very large dog, arguably the largest on our list. On top of that, many developing breeds aim to increase the size, mellow the temperament, or provide a distinctive look.

What dog breed is similar to German Shepherd?

The Belgian Malinois (pronounced MAL-in-wah) is a medium-size Belgian shepherd dog that at first glance resembles a German Shepherd Dog. Malinois are shorthaired, fawn-colored dogs with a black mask. They are one of four types of Belgian herding dogs, and have been shown in the U.S. as a separate breed since 1959.

What are the 5 types of German Shepherds?

West-German Working Line German Shepherds. ….East German DDR Working Line German Shepherds. ….Czech Working Lines German Shepherds. ….American Show Line German Shepherds. ….European Show Line German Shepherds.

What dog is similar to a German Shepherd but smaller?

A Belgian Malinois looks sort of like a smaller, blonder German shepherd, and is sometimes even mistaken for a German shepherd. Malinois are shorthaired dogs, fawn in color, with a black overlay, and a black mask and ears. The females average about 40-60 pounds, and the males weigh about 60-80 pounds.

Are there different types of German Shepherds?

There are only two officially recognized German Shepherd dog breeds, but there are many ways you can differentiate the breed. Here we look into the different types of German Shepherd dog to see what breed variations exist, some of which may become officially recognized in the future.

The German Shepherd (German: Deutscher Schferhund, German pronunciation: [dt fhnt]) is a breed of medium to large-sized working dog that originated in Germany. According to the FCI, the breed’s English language name is German Shepherd Dog. The breed name was officially known as the “Alsatian Wolf Dog” in the UK from after the First World War until 1977 when its name was changed back to German Shepherd.[2] Despite its wolf-like appearance, the German Shepherd is a relatively modern breed of dog, with its origin dating to 1899.

Since that time, however, because of their strength, intelligence, trainability, and obedience, German Shepherds around the world are often the preferred breed for many types of work, including disability assistance , search-and-rescue , police and military roles and acting. The ears are large and stand erect, open at the front and parallel, but they often are pulled back during movement.

A German Shepherd has a long neck, which is raised when excited and lowered when moving at a fast pace as well as stalking. Rarer color variations include the sable, pure-black, pure-white , liver, silver, blue, and panda varieties. A male German Shepherd showing the long muzzle, black mask and nose and brown, medium-sized eyes

A 2020 literature review in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery found that from 1971 to 2018 of all pure breed dogs in the United States, the German Shepherd, was responsible for the most bites severe enough to require hospital treatment. [26] Some show strains have been bred with an extremely roached topline (back) that causes poor gait in the hind legs. The Kennel Club also recommends testing for haemophilia and hip dysplasia, other common problems with the breed.

They are especially well known for their police work, being used for tracking criminals, patrolling troubled areas and detection and holding of suspects. Usually trained for scout duty, they are used to warn soldiers to the presence of enemies or of booby traps or other hazards. At one time the German Shepherd was the breed chosen almost exclusively to be used as a guide dog for the visually impaired .

[39] An experiment in temperament testing of a group of Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds showed that the Retrievers scored higher on average in emotional stability, ability to recover promptly from frightening situations, cooperative behavior and friendliness; while the German Shepherds were superior in aggression and defensive behavior. German Shepherds are still used for herding and tending sheep grazing in meadows next to gardens and crop fields. One Mexican German Shepherd, Zuyaqui , was dissected and his body put on display at the Sedena ‘s ” Narco Museum ” in Mexico.

Arpi, a male five-year-old German Shepherd Military Working Dog, locates hidden explosives inside a car during a training exercise [47] Dogs were being bred to preserve traits that assisted in their job of herding sheep and protecting their flocks from predators. It was recognized that the breed had the necessary skills for herding sheep, such as intelligence, speed, strength and keen senses of smell.

To combat these differences, the Phylax Society was formed in 1891 with the intention of creating standardised development plans for native dog breeds in Germany. While unsuccessful in their goal, the Phylax Society had inspired people to pursue standardising dog breeds independently. With the rise of large, industrialized cities in Germany, the predator population began to decline, rendering sheepdogs unnecessary.

Max von Stephanitz , an ex-cavalry captain and former student of the Berlin Veterinary College, was an ex-member of the Phylax Society who firmly believed dogs should be bred for working. He admired the intelligence, strength and ability of Germany’s native sheepdogs, but could not find any one single breed that satisfied him as the perfect working dog. Hektor was the product of few generations of selective breeding and completely fulfilled what Von Stephanitz believed a working dog should be.

In just a few decades of the Verein fr Deutsche Schferhunde’s establishment, the breed became one of the worlds most popular and numerous, a position it has maintained to this day. It is believed the society accomplished its goal mostly due to Von Stephanitz’s strong, uncompromising leadership and he is therefore credited with being the creator of the German Shepherd Dog. During the first half of the twentieth century, the breed came to be strongly identified with Imperial and Nazi Germany, because of its association with purity and militarism.

[49] German Shepherds were coveted as ” germanische Urhunde “, being close to the wolf, and became very fashionable during the Nazi era. [52] Adolf Hitler acquired a German Shepherd named “Prinz” in 1921, during his years of poverty, but he had been forced to lodge the dog elsewhere. [52] Preparing for his suicide , Hitler ordered Dr Werner Haase to test a cyanide capsule on Blondi, and the dog died as a result.

[54] Erna Flegel , a nurse who worked at the emergency casualty station in the Reich Chancellery stated in 2005 that Blondi’s death had affected the people in the bunker more than Eva Braun ‘s suicide. [58][59] The reputation of the German Shepherds as a dangerous breed had grown to such an extent that it was briefly banned to import them in Australia in 1929. Female (left), male (right).The breed was named Deutscher Schferhund by von Stephanitz, literally translating to “German Shepherd Dog”.

The breed was so named due to its original purpose of assisting shepherds in herding and protecting sheep. The breed was officially renamed by the UK Kennel Club to “Alsatian Wolf Dog”, [62] after the French region of Alsace bordering Germany. Eventually, the appendage “wolf dog” was dropped, [62] after numerous campaigns by breeders who were worried that becoming known as a wolf-dog hybrid would affect the breed’s popularity and legality.

The name Alsatian remained for five decades, [62] until 1977, when successful campaigns by dog enthusiasts pressured the British kennel clubs to allow the breed to be registered again as German Shepherds. Popularity increased again after the German Shepherd Sieger Pfeffer von Bern became the 1937 and 1938 Grand Victor in American Kennel club dog shows, only to suffer another decline at the conclusion of World War II, due to anti-German sentiment. [66] The German Shepherd Dog’s physique is very well suited to competing in shows and competitions, such as agility trials .

Many common ailments of the German Shepherd are a result of the inbreeding practiced early in the breed’s life. [69] A study conducted by the University of Zurich found that 45% of the police working dogs were affected by degenerative spinal stenosis, although a small sample size was used. [71] There are, however, ways to help prevent hip dysplasia, including getting a pup from a good breeder, keeping it on a healthy diet, and limiting the amount of jumping or rough play.

[72] German Shepherds have low frequency of ear infections, since this breed is well-known for hyperactivity of its cerumen -producing glands. [73] According to a recent survey in the UK, the median life span of German Shepherds is 10.95 years, [74] which is normal for a dog of their size. A small study in the UK showed 16% of young asymptomatic GSDs to be homozygous for the mutation, with a further 38% being carriers.

Some breeds like the German shepherd, are predisposed to a variety of different skeletal disorders, including but not limited to: canine hip dysplasia, Cauda equina syndrome , and osteoarthritis . Osteoarthritis is one of the main contributors of musculoskeletal pain and disabilities that commonly affect German shepherds. [83][84] Mechanical stress, oxidative damage and inflammatory mediators combine to induce the gradual degeneration of the articular cartilage in the joint, resulting in reduced muscle mass, pain, and locomotion.

Feeding a well-balanced diet designed for large breeds like the German shepherd to ensure adequate growth rates and proper maintenance of musculoskeletal health is essential. Appropriate calcium levels are vital in developing a strong skeletal system and aid in preventing orthopaedic diseases like Canine Hip Dysplasia. [86] Furthermore, EPA and DHA inhibit key regulators of the inflammatory process and suppress their activation which can help alleviate pain and reduce inflamed joints associated with many skeletal disorders.

Clinical trials of long term administration of glucosamine in German Shepherds have reduced symptoms of degenerative joint disease and accelerated cartilage healing. [87] Anti-inflammatory effects of glucosamine are believed to contribute to the reduction of pain, promote joint recovery and mobility, and prevent further cartilage degradation. [87] Similarly, chondroitin supplementation is proposed to have comparable results in inhibiting degradative enzymes within the cartilage matrix to reduce the effects of osteoarthritis, but further research is required to assess long term benefits.

Adequate levels should be incorporated into a German shepherd diet to promote a healthy musculoskeletal system. It became one of the staple productions of Hungarian television history, making German Shepherds the most popular dog breed in the country ever since. ^ Dogwise: The Natural way to Train your Dog (1992), John Fisher Souvenir Press Ltd. ISBN 0-285-63114-4 ^ Bailey, M.D., Chad M.; Hinchcliff, M.D., Katharine M.; Moore, B.S., Zachary; Pu, M.D., Ph.D., Lee L.Q.

CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link ) ^ “Reported Dog Attack Survey” (PDF) . As Max von Stephanitz stated, ‘A pleasing appearance is desirable, but it can not put the dog’s working ability into question.’ ^ Talenti, Andrea; Dreger, Dayna L; Frattini, Stefano; Polli, Michele; Marelli, Stefano; Harris, Alexander C; Liotta, Luigi; Cocco, Raffaella; Hogan, Andrew N; Bigi, Daniele; Caniglia, Romolo; Parker, Heidi G; Pagnacco, Giulio; Ostrander, Elaine A; Crepaldi, Paola (2018).

“Studies of modern Italian dog populations reveal multiple patterns for domestic breed evolution” . “A follow-up study of neurologic and radiographic findings in working German Shepherd Dogs with and without degenerative lumbosacral stenosis”. “A retrospective study of the prevalence of the canine degenerative myelopathy associated superoxide dismutase 1 mutation (SOD1:c.118G > A) in a referral population of German Shepherd dogs from the UK” (PDF) .

“Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in German shepherd dogs” . “Skeletal morpohology and morphometry of the lumbosacral junction in German shepherd dogs and an evaluation of the possible genetic basis for radiographic findings”. “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteroarthritis patients”.

^ a b Minami, S.; Hata, M.; Tamai, Y.; Hashida, M.; Takayama, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Okada, M.; Funatsu, T.; Tsuka, T.; Imagawa, T.; Okamoto, Y. “Clinical application of D-glucosamine and scale collagen peptide on canine and feline orthopedic diseases and spondylitis deformans”.

Everybodys familiar with the German Shepherd Dog. After all, theyve been Americas second most popular breed for years. But not everybody is quite as well acquainted with the Belgian Malinois. In fact, their similar coloring and heritage as herding breeds might lead some people to mistake the Belgian Malinois for the German Shepherd. However, there are a few key differences between these two breeds, as well as some fascinating similarities.

Also dating back to the late 1800s, the German Shepherd was developed by Captain Max von Stephanitz . The sport of Schutzhund was developed as a test to choose appropriate animals for breeding when it wasnt possible to evaluate the dogs by their traditional work.

Vigilant yet responsive, they balance all the qualities needed in a stock dog, protector, and sensible working partner. Besides being shown in conformation , German Shepherds compete in herding , obedience , agility , tracking , dock diving , disc dog , barn hunt , and more, she affirms.

Belgian Malinois

Out of all the dogs on our list, the Malinois is perhaps the one that is most often mistaken for a German Shepherd.In fact, Malinois are often used to play German Shepherds on television, though their coats are thinner often with more brown than black.Malinois makes excellent working dogs, but they may not be the best for children due to their temperament.This breed of dog requires significant amounts of exercise and enrichment to prevent potentially destructive behavior from surfacing.That said, Malinois is one of the smartest dogs, apt to the training of advanced commands and eager to learn.As noted by the AKC, you need to spend plenty of time working with a Malinois, but they form some of the strongest bonds.

White Shepherd

Technically, the White Shepherd is just a slightly different coloration of the German Shepherd, though they have been recognized as their own breed by the UKC.Still, the breed went through plenty of controversies before American breeders reintroduced the coloration.While the eponymous white coat may appear beautiful, it is worth noting that this breed is the result of more inbreeding than most others. This is due to the white coloration being a recessive gene.Thankfully, this development did not create serious health issues uncharacteristic of the German Shepherd breed in general.While intelligent and loyal, the White Shepherd does not always play well with others– especially dogs of the same sex.

Eastern European Shepherd

This breed of dog might not be the most well-known, but it is definitely one of the closest resembling breeds on our list.In fact, the Eastern European Shepherd is a direct result of Soviet breeding with the intent of making a larger, healthier version of the German Shepherd.Standing a bit taller, the Eastern European Shepherd, also known as the VEO or BEO, is significantly heavier than the German Shepherd.As such, BEOs make excellent working dogs and are used for a wide variety of tasks in Russia.While they are calmer than German Shepherds, in general, their breeding for military and police work left them a bit more prone to aggression than some of the other breeds.However, VEOs are easy to train and wait for a signal before going into action.

Tervuren

Like the Malinois, Tervuren is another Belgian dog, though its distinctive coat helps prevent it from being mistaken for a German Shepherd.That said, there is some debate as to whether or not the Tervuren and Malinois are actually different breeds– along with the next two on our list.Much like the Malinois, the Tervuren bounds with endless energy, though their personalities differ in some important ways.While they make good watchdogs, Tervurens are not as aggressive or prey driven as Malinois.While this can make Tervurens better-suited for families with rambunctious children, they can also be excessively shy.Due to their black mask face markings and reddish body, this breed presents a striking appearance.

Laekenois

Another member of the hotly debated Belgian Shepherd sub-breeds, the Laekenois is still recognized in its own right.However, one look is all it really takes to see why this breed stands apart from the rest.The Laekenois is one of the few shepherd breeds that does not have exceptionally straight hair.Instead, the Laekenois’ coat looks wooly, almost wiry, in nature, and is much lighter in color than most of the other breeds on our list.Laekenois have similar levels of energy as other Belgian Shepherd breeds but are known for being a bit more affectionate and good-natured.While they are intelligent and easy to train, Laekenois are not as good for competition as some of their cousins.

Groenendael

The final Belgian Shepherd breed on our list, the Groenendael might be the most visually striking due to its mostly black coloration.Like Tervuren, the Groenendael has a longer coat, a more luxurious coat than German Shepherds, or other Belgian Shepherds.The Groenendael also follows the Tervuren in a number of temperamental ways too with nearly limitless energy.However, where the Tervuren may be a bit shy, the Groenendael can be a bit more protective, leading to slightly more aggression.Still, the Groenendael is extremely intelligent and eager to please, though they are a bit more reserved with their affections.However, they bond extremely well and are noted for suffering separation anxiety when left alone for long periods of time.

Dutch Shepherd

Moving a bit north, the Dutch Shepherd keeps the size and shape of the German Shepherd more than Belgian breeds.Defined by the UKC, the Dutch Shepherd defines itself with a brindle coloration and a distinguished-looking, bushy muzzle.Like a couple of other breeds we saw, the Dutch Shepherd has a wooly undercoat rather than the straight fur German Shepherds bear.One of the better working dogs, Dutch Shepherds takes quickly to training such that they can be left to their tasks without the oversight of their master.On top of that, Dutch Shepherds are some of the healthiest of the Northern European shepherd breeds.Dutch Shepherds are also great with children and other dogs but show the characteristic wariness towards strangers.

Carpathian Shepherd

The Carpathian Shepherd is one of the first on our list that may not immediately strike you as looking like a German Shepherd.However, this has more to do with the thicker, wooly coat and the fact that their ears do not point, flopping down instead.Another notable difference between the Carpathian Shepherd and the German Shepherd is the size.Recognized by theNoted for a milder temperament than other shepherds, the Carpathian Shepherd is calm but extremely loyal and protective.In fact, the Carpathian Shepherd still guards flocks of sheep against even bears to this very day.

Bohemian Shepherd

The Bohemian Shepherd begins our foray into breeds that are not quite recognized, though the FCI recognized the Bohemian Shepherd just this year.That said, the Bohemian Shepherd is an old breed and may even predate the German Shepherd.One thing that sets this breed apart from the German Shepherd is its size with the Bohemian Shepherd standing a bit shorter.The Bohemian Shepherd also sports a longer, thicker coat than the German Shepherd with a black and red coloration.Like other shepherd offshoots, the Bohemian Shepherd contains bundles of energy and requires a lot of activity.However, this breed is far more affectionate and even-tempered than some of the other shepherd breeds.

King Shepherd

King Shepherd is a developing breed that is not currently recognized as its own distinct breed.However, the resemblance to German Shepherds is unmistakable, though King Shepherds are much bigger.In fact, King Shepherd is the second-largest breed on our list, able to reach 150 pounds.This breed of shepherds crosses a Shiloh Shepherd, itself working on recognition, with large Alaskan Malamutes and Japanese Akitas.They make excellent working dogs, especially guard dogs, and carry the self-assurance of German Shepherds.However, this is one of the few shepherds on our list that not only lacks shyness but is actually friendly towards strangers.

Shiloh Shepherd

The Shiloh Shepherd is a work in progress that aims to increase the size of the German Shepherd while still retaining much of its original genetics.Like King Shepherd it helps develop, the Shiloh Shepherd is larger than most able to reach 140 pounds.Not only is the Shiloh Shepherd generally larger than German Shepherds, but they aim to remove or reduce the number of health problems associated with the breed.The Shiloh Shepherd can also display a thicker, plush coat than their German cousins.Noted by the SSRC, one of the main intentions when making this breed is a calmer temperament.In fact, the development of the breed requires temperament testing in order to be certified by its focused clubs.

American Alsatian

The American Alsatian is a developing breed focused on presenting the appearance of a wolf without mixing with a wolf.This is because wolf hybrids can be extremely difficult to work with and keep as pets.This breed gets up to 100 pounds which makes them larger than their German cousins but nowhere near the largest breed on our list.The American Alsatian combines the German Shepherd with the Alaskan Malamute, English Mastiff, and Great Pyrenees.Despite their imposing size and fearsome appearance, the American Alsatian is not a working dog.Instead, this breed is noted for its calm, friendly demeanor and was bred primarily to be a companion.

Northern Inuit

The Northern Inuit is another breed designed to look like a wolf, but it takes a completely different approach.Excluding the English Mastiff and Great Pyrenees, the Northern Inuit is the only breed on our list noted for being a wolf hybrid.That said, the hybridization has long since passed, and the breed does not demonstrate some of the difficulties other wolf hybrids present.However, there is no getting around the fact that the wolf blood of the Northern Inuit makes itself known through its sheer size and personality.As befits a wolf hybrid, the Northern Inuit is definitely not for novice owners and carries with it a stubborn streak and can be fairly difficult to train – though they are intelligent.As reported by National Geographic, it is worth noting that the Northern Inuit is the breed used for the Direwolves on Game of Thrones.

Panda Shepherd

To be clear, this is not actually a breed of dog as much as it is an extremely rare coloration.As such, this should definitely not be mistaken as anything other than a German Shepherd, but their rarity can make finding one extremely difficult.The main feature that defines a Panda Shepherd is the inclusion of white in their fur coloration, something that normally disqualifies a German Shepherd from being registered.However, genetic tests show that this coloration is actually a result of genetic mutation, not crossbreeding.Much like standard German Shepherds, Panda Shepherds are incredibly intelligent and easy to train.They make excellent working dogs and are extremely protective of their family, demonstrating the characteristic wariness of strangers common with German Shepherds.

Caucasian Shepherd Dog

Out of all the dogs on our list, the Caucasian Shepherd is the one that looks the least like a German Shepherd while still maintaining some passing resemblance.Looking a bit more like the Carpathian Shepherd already covered, this is a very large dog, arguably the largest on our list.If you are looking for a guard dog, there are few that can strike fear into the heart of an intruder like this one.Historically, the Caucasian Shepherd, also known as the Mountain Dog, lives up to its name as this is easily the largest dog on our list able to reach weights of 220 pounds.

German Shepherd

TheAs a herding dog, German Shepherds are working dogs developed originally for herding sheep. Since that time, however, because of their strength, intelligence, trainability, and obedience, German Shepherds around the world are often the preferred breed for many types of work, including disability assistance, search-and-rescue, police and military roles and acting.

Description[edit]

German Shepherds are medium to large-sized dogs.German Shepherds have a double coat which is close and dense with a thick undercoat. The coat is accepted in two variants: medium and long. The gene for long hair is recessive, and therefore the long-haired variety is rarer. Treatment of the long-haired variation differs across standards; it is accepted but does not compete against standard-coated dogs under the German and UK Kennel Clubs while it can compete with standard-coated dogs, but is considered a fault, in the American Kennel Club.Most commonly, German Shepherds are either tan/black or red/black. Most color varieties have black masks and black body markings which can range from a classic “saddle” to an overall “blanket”. Rarer color variations include the sable, pure-black, pure-white, liver, silver, blue, and panda varieties. The all-black and sable varieties are acceptable according to most standards; however, the blue and liver are considered to be serious faults and the all-white is grounds for instant disqualification from showing in conformation at All Breed and Specialty Shows.

Temperament[edit]

German Shepherds are moderately active dogs and are described in breed standards as self assured.

Aggression and biting[edit]

A 2020 literature review inWhile an Australian report from 1999 provides statistics showing that German Shepherds are the breed third most likely to attack a person in some Australian locales,According to the National Geographic Channel television show

Modern breed[edit]

The modern German Shepherd breed is criticized by some for straying away from Max von Stephanitz’s original ideology that German Shepherds should be bred primarily as working dogs and that breeding should be strictly controlled to eliminate defects quickly.

Controversy[edit]

The Kennel Club, in the United Kingdom, is involved in a dispute with German Shepherd breed clubs about the issue of soundness in the show strain of the breed.The debate was catalyzed when the issue was raised in the BBC documentary,The Kennel Club’s position is that “this issue of soundness is not a simple difference of opinion, it is the fundamental issue of the breed’s essential conformation and movement.”The Kennel Club also recommends testing for haemophilia and hip dysplasia, other common problems with the breed.

East-European Shepherd[edit]

The East-European Shepherd is a variety of the German Shepherd bred in the former Soviet Union with the purpose of creating a larger, more cold resistant version of the German Shepherd; it lacks the physical deformities bred into western show lines of German Shepherds and has become one of Russia’s most popular dog types.

King Shepherd[edit]

The King Shepherd is a variety of the German Shepherd bred in the United States, its breeders hoping to rectify the physical deformities that have been bred into the original breed.

Shiloh Shepherd[edit]

The Shiloh Shepherd is a variety of the German Shepherd bred in the United States. It was developed in the 1970s and 1980s to correct behavioural and conformational issues that have been bred into modern German Shepherds, and was bred for large size, length of their back, temperament and soundness of hips.

White Shepherd[edit]

The White Shepherd is a variety of the German Shepherd bred in the United States. White coated German Shepherds were once banned from registration in their native Germany, but in the United States and Canada the colouration gained a following and a breed club was formed specifically for white coloured German Shepherds, calling their variety the White Shepherd. The variety is recognized as a separate breed by the United Kennel Club.

History[edit]

German Shepherds are a popular selection for use as working dogs.The German Shepherd is one of the most widely used breeds in a wide variety of scent-work roles. These include search and rescue, cadaver searching, narcotics detection, explosives detection, accelerant detection and mine detection dog, among others. They are suited for these lines of work because of their keen sense of smell and their ability to work regardless of distractions.German Shepherds are still used for herding and tending sheep grazing in meadows next to gardens and crop fields. They are expected to patrol the boundaries to keep sheep from trespassing and damaging the crops. In Germany and other places these skills are tested in utility dog trials also known as Herdengebrauchshund (HGH) herding utility dog trials.One Mexican German Shepherd, Zuyaqui, was dissected and his body put on display at the Sedena’s “Narco Museum” in Mexico. He is regarded to be the dog who has captured the most drugs in Mexican police and military history.

Etymology[edit]

The breed was namedThe direct translation of the name was adopted for use in the official breed registry; however, at the conclusion of World War I, it was believed that the inclusion of the word “German” would harm the breed’s popularity,Eventually, the appendage “wolf dog” was dropped,

Popularity[edit]

When the UK Kennel accepted registrations in 1919, 54 German Shepherds were registered. By 1926 this number had grown to over 8,000.Popularity increased again after the German Shepherd

Health[edit]

Many common ailments of the German Shepherd are a result of the inbreeding practiced early in the breed’s life.Degenerative myelopathy, a neurological disease, occurs with enough regularity specifically in the breed to suggest that the breed is predisposed to it. A very inexpensive DNA saliva test is now available to screen for degenerative myelopathy. The test screens for the mutated gene that has been seen in dogs with degenerative myelopathy. A small study in the UK showed 16% of young asymptomatic GSDs to be homozygous for the mutation, with a further 38% being carriers.Additionally, German Shepherds have a higher than normal incidence of Von Willebrand disease, a common inherited bleeding disorder,

Skeletal health and supplementation[edit]

Musculoskeletal disorders are debilitating conditions that are often associated with genetic makeup, malnutrition, and stress-related events.Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is an orthopedic condition resulting from abnormal development of the hip joint and surrounding tissue causing the instability and partial dislocation of the hip joint, resulting in pain, inflammation, lameness, and potentially osteoarthritis of the joint.Osteoarthritis is one of the main contributors of musculoskeletal pain and disabilities that commonly affect German shepherds.Feeding a well-balanced diet designed for large breeds like the German shepherd to ensure adequate growth rates and proper maintenance of musculoskeletal health is essential.Appropriate calcium levels are vital in developing a strong skeletal system and aid in preventing orthopaedic diseases like Canine Hip Dysplasia.Omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of cartilage catabolism inGlucosamine is an amino-monosaccharide that naturally occurs in all tissues, particularly in articular cartilage of joints and from the biosynthesis of glucose.Vitamins such as A and D also have crucial roles in bone development and maintenance by regulating bone and calcium metabolism.

In popular culture[edit]

German Shepherds have been featured in a wide range of media.Batman’s dog Ace the Bat-Hound appeared in the Batman comic books, initially in 1955,A German Shepherd named Inspector Rex is the star of an Austrian Police procedural drama program of the same name, which won many awards, where German Shepherd Rex assists the ViennaKántor was a famous and very successful police dog in Hungary in the 1950s and early 1960s. After his death his story was fictionalized by two crime novels by Rudolf Szamos, titled Kántor Investigates and

A Shared Herding Heritage

Both the Malinois and German Shepherd are members of the Herding Group and can trace their origins to livestock herding dogs. As their names imply, the Belgian Malinois was developed in Belgium and the German Shepherd in Germany.The Malinois was one of four varieties of Belgian Shepherd Dog in use in the late 1800s. It was first recognized by Professor Adolphe Reul. He characterized the variety as a medium-sized square dog with dark brown eyes and triangular ears. Each of the four types of Belgian Shepherd Dog was named for the area around Brussels where it was developed, with the Malinois hailing from the Malines region.“As the agricultural lifestyle declined, the Belgian Shepherd Dog became favored in the development of police dog training,” according to Ann MacKay, who has owned Belgian Malinois for 32 years and bred them for 26,In fact, as early as 1908, the AKC Gazette mentioned that two Belgian Sheepdogs had been imported into the United States to work as police dogs in New York City. More were imported in 1911, including two specifically identified in the AKC studbook as Malinois. Finally, in 1959 the Belgian Malinois was granted full AKC recognition as a breed of its own, separate from the other Belgian Shepherd Dog varieties.Also dating back to the late 1800s, the German Shepherd was developed by Captain Max von Stephanitz. He wanted to create the perfect dog breed. Von Stephanitz was impressed by the variety of herding dogs he saw throughout Germany. Looking for his ideal medium-to-large-sized dog with an independent, persistent, and obedient personality, he found and purchased a dog at a show in 1899. That dog became the first registered German Shepherd Dog in von Stephanitz’s newly established German Shepherd Dog Club and the founder of the breed.“Although the primary and original purpose of the German Shepherd was herding sheep (in what we refer to as a tending fashion), the breed soon became popular with the police and as military dogs,” says Julie Degen, a German Shepherd enthusiast for over 30 years and breeder for 25. “The sport of Schutzhund was developed as a test to choose appropriate animals for breeding when it wasn’t possible to evaluate the dogs by their traditional work. In short order, German Shepherds became one of the best known and most popular breeds in the world.”

Different Physical Qualities

Both breeds are similar in height. Males stand 24-26 inches high at the withers and females 22-24 inches. But the majority of Malinois are lighter than most German Shepherds. The male Malinois weighs 60-80 pounds and the female weighs 40-60 pounds. In contrast, a male German Shepherd can weigh up to 90 pounds and a female up to 70 pounds.MacKay, former vice president and over 25-year member of the American Belgian Malinois Club, points out that the Malinois’ ears more closely resemble a triangle than the German Shepherd’s ears. Plus, the Malinois is a square breed. In other words, when viewing from the side, the topline, front legs, and back legs should closely approximate a square.On the other hand, the breed standard for the German Shepherd describes a dog that is “longer than tall, deep-bodied, and presents an outline of smooth curves rather than angles.”Degen, a member of the German Shepherd Dog Club of America for 26 years who served as both the herding chair and performance chair, is struck by the German Shepherd’s movement. She describes the breed as having a unique, extremely efficient, and effortless gait. This helps them cover the most amount of ground with the least effort.